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1 1 — 

A NEW AMERICAN opera, “Par Harbor,” 
will be presented in New York City in 
January by the Ballet Society, which 
commissioned the work from Baldwin 
Bergerson, composer, and William Archi- 
bald, librettist. It is described as a fan- 
tasy in two acts; it is a chamber work 
with a cast of eight singers and an 
orchestra of eighteen. 



■ which opened its New 

York seasori on N ° vem_ 
jg l3| ber 10 with a brilliant 

performance of “UnBallo 

in Maschera” will pre- 
■I"" sent fourteen new sing- 

ers during the season 
Paula Lenchner and a num ber of per- 
formances which will be in the nature 
of novelties. First, there will be entirely 
new productions of Wagner's “Ring, 
with settings designed by Lee Simonson. 
Benjamin Britten’s “Peter Grimes” will 
be produced for the first time, and several 
standard works will be restored to the 
repertoire. Massenet’s * Manon and 
Charpentier’s “Louise,” neither of which 
has been heard in the last three seasons, 
will be sung again. New singers announc- 
ed to appear will include Erna Schlueter, 
Elen Dosia, Paula Lenchner, Polyna 
Stoska, Giuseppe Valdengo, Max Lorenz, 
Chloe Elmo, Clifford Harvout, Evelyn 
Sachs, and Lawrence Davidson. 

tival in Europe is announced for next 
year, this one in Brussels, Belgium, in 
May. Three Belgian orchestras will take 
part; the Philharmonic Society Orches- 
tra, the National Radio Institute Orches- 
tra, and the orchestra of the Societe des 
Concerts of the Conservatory. Desire 
Defauw and Erich Kleiber will conduct. 
The programs will include a new work 
by Shostakovich and a new Rhapsody by 
Marcel Poot, Belgian composer. 

ARTHUR COHN, composer, conductor, 
and writer, who since 1943 has been head 
of The Edwin A. Fleisher Music Collec- 
tion at the Free Library of Philadelphia, 
has been appointed Head of the Music 
Department of the library, succeeding 
Miss Daisy Fansler, who has retired 
because of ill health. 

RICHARD RODGERS and Irving Berlin, 
widely known composers in the popular 
music field, have jointly given a commis- 
sion for a piano sonata to the American 
composer, Samuel Barber. The commis- 
sion, which was given on the recom- 
mendation of the League of Composers, 
will honor the League’s twenty-fifth 

THE ITALIAN opera season in Buenos 
Aires was most enthusiastically enjoyed 
by uniformly large audiences. The season 
marked the reappearance before Argen- 
tine audiences of a number of favorite 
singers who had not been heard there 
for a long time, among these being the 
famous tenor Beniamino Gigli and the 
soprano Maria Caniglia. Other well known 
stars who appeared were Ferruccio Tag- 
liavini, Bruno Landi, Hilde Reggiani, 
Salvatore Baccaloni, and Gino Bechi. 

DAVID VAN VACTOR was recently 
appointed conductor of the Knoxville 
Symphony Orchestra and head of the 
University of Tennessee’s new Depart- 
ment of Fine Arts. Mr. Van Vactor was 
formerly conductor of the Allied Arts 

Orchestra of Kansas City, and of the 
orchestra of the Conservatory of Music 
of Kansas City. 

TAUNO HANNIKAINEN, assistant con- 
ductor of the Chicago Symphony Orches- 
tra, who is in charge of the Concerts for 
Young People this season, will present an 
entire program of music composed by 
boys under sixteen who later became 
masters, including Mozart and Mendels- 
sohn. Mr. Hannikainen plans also to 
present an entire program of music per- 
taining to fairy tales, such as Prokofieff’s 
“Peter and the Wolf.” 

ed by many to be England's greatest 
living composer, observed his seventy- 
fifth birthday in October. A full week 
was devoted to the celebration by various 
musical organizations, with the lead being 
taken by the British Broadcasting Cor- 
poration, which featured programs of 
the composer’s best known works. 

by this gifted artist appeared in The 
Etude for February, 1942. 

the' Boston Symphony Orchestra, has 
programmed a number of new works to 
be presented during the season. Included 
are a new symphony in ten movements 
by the French composer, Olivier Mes- 
siaen; the Fourth Symphony by the Ital- 
ian composer, Malipiero; a new Concerto 
for ’Cello and Orchestra by Khatchatur- 
ian; and a String Symphony by Honegger.' 

MISS LEAH THORPE, director of the 
School Music Department at the Pea- 
body Conservatory of Music, Baltimore, 
has been named Superintendent of the 
Conservatory’s Preparatory Department, 
succeeding Gustav Klemm, who died in 

GIUSEPPE DE LUCA, baritone, who has 
spent fifty years singing in opera, cele- 
brated on November 7 by giving a Golden 
Jubilee recital in Town Hall, New York 

E. POWER BIGGS, distinguished organ- 
ist, observed in September his fifth anni- 
versary of broadcasting organ recitals, 
which have been a Sunday morning fea- 
ture as sent out over the air waves from 
Harvard’s Germanic Museum in Boston. 
Several notable features have been pre- 
sented, among these being the playing 
of the entire organ literature of J. S. 
Bach, and all sixteen of Handel’s organ 

modern opera, “Peter 
Grimes,” will be given its 
West Coast premiere by 
Stanford University as a 
feature of the Univer- 
sity’s 1947-48 dramatic 
season. According to the 
announcement, this will 
be the first performance 
to which the public can 
purchase tickets, the only previous pres- 
entation having been at the Berkshire 
Music Center in 1946, when admission 
was by invitation. The opera was written 
originally for the Sadlers Wells Opera 
Company in England, and has been pre- 
sented in ten countries and in eight dif- 
ferent languages. 

EFREM ZIMBALIST, noted violinist, is 
presenting a series of five violin recitals 
unique in the history of concert giving— 
a panoramic history of violin music be- 
ginning with the first known violin work 
(by Biagio Marini — born 1597) and, com- 
ing chronologically down through the 
centuries, ending with works of modern 
times. The first of these in New York 
City was on November 8, and the second 
will be on December 13. A total number 
of thirty-nine composers will be repre- 



WALTER PISTON, American composer, 
has been given a one thousand dollar 
commission by the Dallas (Texas) Sym- 
phony Orchestra for a new orchestral 
work. This is the second commission to 
be given by this forward looking sym- 
phonic organization, the first having been 
given to Paul Hindemith. Piston’s score 
will be played by the orchestra, under 
its regular conductor, Antal Dorati. 

GEORGES ENESCO, Roumanian com- 
poser-conductor violinist, will appear 
with a number of American orchestras 
this season as guest conductor. These 
will include the Indianapolis Symphony, 
the National Symphony, the Rochester 
Symphony, the Houston Symphony, and 
the orchestra of Les Concerts Sym- 
phoniques de Montreal. 

RICHARD STRAUSS, famous composer, 
now eighty-three years old, broken and 
penniless, came back into the musical 
limelight in October, when he appeared 
at a concert in London to hear Sir Thomas 
Beecham conduct his “Don Quixote.” 
Responding to the torrents of applause 
which reverberated throughout tfie thea- 
tre, Mr. Strauss was able only to take the 
stage and cry tremulously to the audience 
in French, “Thank you! I thank you!” 

SIGURD RASCHER, Swedish-American 
saxophonist, played Henry Brant’s Con- 
certo for Saxophone and Orchestra for 
the first time in Europe, when he appear- 
ed in October with the Copenhagen Phil- 
harmonic. A highly interesting article 

ANDOR FOLDES gave, on November 3, 
the New York premiere of Bartok’s Sec- 
ond Piano Concerto, with the National 
Orchestral Association under Leon Barzin. 

the largest in the 'world, was presented 
in September to the First Presbyterian 
Church of Stamford, Connecticut. The 
gift of the International Nestle Company, 
it was given in appreciation of the hos- 
pitality shown by the people of Stamford 
to employes of the company’s headquar- 
ters staff who had been moved to the 
Connecticut city in 1939 from Vevey, 


H new permanent conduc- 
tor of the Rochester 
Philharmonic Orchestra, 
has planned a series of 
special programs to com- 
memorate the Silver 
Anniversary of the or- 
chestra. A highlight will 
be the playing of a com- 
Erich Leinsdorf pj e (- e Beethoven cycle, to 

include all nine symphonies. The centen- 
nial of Mendelssohn’s death was observed 
in November by the performance of the 
complete music to “A Midsummer Night’s 
Dream.” Contemporary American works 
also will feature the program. These will 
include Douglas Moore’s Symphony No. 2 
in A Major; Dr. Howard Hanson’s “Pan 
and the Priest”; Randall Thompson’s 
“Testament of Freedom”; and excerpts 
from Virgil Thomson’s “The Mother of 
Us All,” with Dorothy Maynor as soloist. 

The Choir Invisible 

SIR PERCY CARTER BUCK, distinguish- 
ed English organist, and Professor of 
Music, died October 3 in London. Sir 
Percy was appointed to the King Edward 
Chair of Music in the University of 
London in 1925, a post he held until 1937, 
when he retired and was made Emeritus 
Professor of Music. 

MOSE GUMBLE, representative of the 
Music Publishers Holding Corporation in 
New York, died suddenly September 28, 
in his compartment aboard the Twentieth 
Century Limited as it left Elkhart, 
Indiana. His age was seventy-one. 

JANET FAIRBANK, prominent soprano 
of Chicago, who had sung with the 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the 
San Carlo Opera Company, died in Chi- 
cago on September 26, aged forty-four. 
She was widely known as an exponent of 
modern songs. 

GITZ RICE, who became famous as the 
composer of two widely known songs of 
the First World War, Dear Old Pal of 
Mine, and Keep Your Head Down, Frit- 
zie Boy, died October 16 in New York 
City. In his early years he had a long 
career as a vaudeville headliner, appear- 
ing with such stars as Frank Fay, Irene 
Bordoni, Blanche Ring, and the late 
Florence Moore. 

EDWARD ZIEGLER, since 1920, assistant 
general manager of the Metropolitan 
(Continued on Page 713) 




Included in this offer are: ALBUMS OF PIANO SOLOS, 


Holiday Cash Prices will be withdrawn December 31, 1947. 
Remittance must accompany order to enjoy these reduced prices. 
Delivery prepaid for cash with order. Remit by check. Postal or 
Express Money Order. Cash or stamps should be sent Registered 
Mail. No returns, exchanges, or examination privileges at these 

NEIGHBORS — For Piano- 
Compiled and Arr. for Easy 
Playing by Ada Richter. ( 75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 
An attractively illustrated and delight- 
fully engaging book for young pianists. 
It draws upon, the' musical lore of our 
neighbors to the south and there are num- 
bers from Creole, Mexican, Brazilian, 
Costa Rican, Chilean, Peruvian, Argen- 
tinean, and Ecuadorian sources. Filled 
with the lovely rhythmic airs to which 
these friendly people dance, play, and 
romantically pursue their lives, the pieces 
have been adapted to the requirements of 
second grade pianists, and words of the 
# songs are printed between the staves. 

Familiar Songs in Very Easy Arr’s. 
for Piano — By Ada Richter (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

40 songs that everybody knows, arranged 
so simpy that almost anybody can play 
them on the piano, even youngsters who 
have had but few lessons. Complete texts 
are given to enable the rest of the family 
to join in the fun. 

and Songs in Simplified Arrange- 
ments for Piano — By Ada Richter 
(75c) Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

The best-loved Christmas melodies. 31 of 
them, brought Within the reach of young 
pianists along in the first and second 
grades and yet the arrangements will sat- 
isfy older pianists of limited playing at- 
tainments. Texts are included. 

The CHILDHOOD DAYS 0F . c^lnd Ruth Bampton 

dents from the childhood da y s , of * e hic h retain the essentml elements 
play piano pieces (including a duet) directions for construct 

of the original composition; somethi g . f a sce ne from the 

(1 *bsb 


I 4 n f ) Holiday Cash Price, due 

nata No. 11 in A maior) . Air (Uom loon 
Tuan) Easy piano Duet is from No 39 in 
the workbook, composed at age eight. 

(Lottie Ellsworth Coit and Ruth 

(40c) Holiday Cash Price, 30c 

See general description of Series on this 
page. Easy piano solos are: A Ctntr} 
Dance. Menuel in G, J heme * fr< 2R 
Fifth Symphony) . The Metronome Theme 
(from the Eighth Symphony), Chorale 

(from the Ninth Symphony) . Easy piano 
Auef.Allegretto (fromSeventh Symphony ) . 

(Lottie Ellsworth Coit and Ruth 

(40c) Holiday Cash Price, 30c 

See general description of Series on this 
page. Easy piano solos are: Nocturne in 
E-flat, Valse in A-Minor, Prelude, Theme 
(from the Ballade in A-flat Major), "But- 
terfly” Etude. Easy piano duet is: Polo- 
naise in A-MajQr. 

(Lottie Ellsworth Coit and Ruth 

(40c) Holiday Cash Price, 30c 

See general description of Series on this 
page. Easy piano solos are: O Saviour 
Sweet, Musette, Minuet in G-mtnor, While 
Bagpipers Play (from the "Peasant Can- 
tata) . Easy piano duet is: My Heart Eve 

(Lottie Ellsworth Coit and Ruth 
. Bampton) 

(40c) Holiday Cash Price, 30c 

See general description of Series on this 
page. Easy piano solos are: Gipsy Rondo, ^ 
Minuet and Andante (from the Surprise 
Symphony), Andante (from the Clock 
Symphony) , Beauty Everywhere (The Em- 
peror’s Hymn). Easy piano duet is: The 
"Toy" Symphony. ^ 

(Lottie Ellsworth Coit and Ruth 

(40c) Holiday Cash Price, 30c 

See general description of Series on this 
page. Easy piano solos are: Minuet in F , 
Air (from Rinaldo), Hornpipe, The Har- 
monious Blacksmith, Largo (from Xerxes) . 
Easy piano duet is: Hallelujah Chorus 
(from The Messiah). 

COMPOSERS — For Piano 
Solo ($1.00) 

Holiday Cash Price, 70c 
This volume, w ith its 34 immortal piano 
solo selections, becomes the favorite of 
each and every good pianist or fairly ad- 
vanced student into whose hands it goes. 
The numbers appeal to musicians and 
lovers of music, and an acquaintance 
with them h practically essential. 

eichteen hymn 

For Piano Solo — By Clarence 
Kohlmann (75c) 

Holiday Cash Price, 55c 
The sales of the late Clarence Kohlmann’s 
transcriptions of hymns is just astonishing. 
Retaining the devotional spirit of the 
hymns, these make possible smooth and 
flowing piano renditions, whether used 
to accompany the singing by vocal solo- 
ists or by the entire assemblage, or given 
as instrumental numbers. This third al- 
bum of Kohlmann hymn transcriptions in 
no way duplicates any numbers in the 
books which preceded it. 

Please give both Series Title and Composer Title uhen ordering this Series 

PIECES (750 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

Little ladies, gifted with dainty charms 
and graceful qualities, will find, in these 
24 grade 2 and 2V2 piano solos, musical 
prettiness appealing to them. 

Easy Arrangements for Piano — 
By Ada Richter (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

Mrs. Richter's deftness in making easy, 
pianistic adaptations of favorite tunes is 
again to be noted in this book for yo«ng 
Americans in grades 1 to 2 in piano. The 
four sections bear the heading: "Earliest 
Patriotic Songs" ; "Famous War Songs of 
the Early Years’’ ; "Songs Our Fighting 
Men Like to Sing"; and "Famous War 
Songs and Patriotic Tunes of Later Years.’ ’ 
A verse of each song is included and 
illustrations accompany some. 

In Easy Arrangements for Piano 
Solo By Ada Richter (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

Almost every child has heard over the 
radio, or in school, the beautiful Amer- 
ican folk songs written by Stephen Foster. 
This book of 28 easy piano pieces gives 
the young piano pupil a chance to enjoy 
playing these fine melodies. 

For Piano — By Ada Richter (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

Although arranged for first and second 
grades, the 52 hymns included retain their 
full essence and can be played in the regu- 
lar service w r hen needed. The two sections 
of the book cover "Hymns for Every Day" 
and "Hymns for Special Occasions.” 

In Very Easy Arr. 


By Ada Richter 

(75c), Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

The gaily-decorated cover in the Christ- 
mas colors, red and green, adds to the 
attractiveness of this fine collection of 
carols as a gift book for young pianists. 
The texts are printed between the staves 
in each part and the arrangements may 
be used to accompany the singing. 

— For the Piano — Compiled and 
Arranged by Leopold J. Beer (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

Here in company with pieces by Mozart, 
Handel, and Scarlatti, one finds such ex- 
quisite early works as Hasseler’s Alle- 
gretto Sclierzando; Krebs’ Bourree ; 
Couperin’s Rigaudon; and the Rondo by 
Marptirg. There are twelve delightful 
numbers in all. 


Four Hands 

(75c), Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

20 first and second grade four-hand 
pieces which are delightful and helpful 
to young pianists. Both parts are for 
playing by pupils. 

SIDE BY SIDE— A Piano Duet 
Book for Young Players 
By Ella Ketterer 

(75c), Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

A charming book this is. from its very 
bright and attractive front cover to the 
last measure of the tenth little duet 
number it contains. These duets are for 
the first and second year of study. 
Tastefully illustrated. 

PIECES (75c) 

Holiday Cash Price 55c 

Every boy piano pupil ready for the sec- 
ond grade of sutdy should have this al- 
bum of 23 compositions. These pieces are 
of types which appeal to the lads whose 
imaginations are as lively as their physi- 
cal selves. 

Solo — Compiled by Rob Roy 
Peery (75c) 

Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

Distinctively reverent in character and 
eminently suited for religious services, the 
melodic, meditative character of the music 
included also will be especially welcome 
to music lovers for relaxing musical 

PIANIST — Compiled by Lucile 
Earhart ($1.00) 

Holiday Cash Price, 70c 

The 38 numbers in this book, all classic 
favorites, were selected for inclusion be- 
cause of their special adaptability to the 
purpose. Pieces of the meditative type in 
grades 4 and 5. 


By Louise E. Stairs (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

ijSl !!°M ng . piano £ ^sinner will cherish 
this collection of very easy, attractive 
pieces in grade one to two. One of the 
™“j e / ece P> creators of pieces for young 
pianists Mrs. Stairs has written many 
successful numbers. Of these, the 19 
which comprise this collection furnish a 
varied repertoire for the young pupil. 
Teachers wdl find these numbers excel- 
m mg° r l eSson ass ‘R nm ents. Most of the 

the thorough 
on the piano, 
will bring to 
[os, they may 

BOYS — First Grade Piano Solos 

Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

This is an ideal type of piano album for 
a Christmas gift to a pupil in the first year 
of study because it just seems to fit into 
the happy play spirit of young boys and 
girls at Christmas-time. It contains 29 
easy-to-play pieces which present a nice 
variety of tunes and rhythms. 

PETER RABBIT— A Story With Music for the 
Piano — By Ada Richter (60c) 

Holiday Cash Price, 45c 

Piano teachers will be delighted with Peter Rabbit, the 
latest book in the Story with Music series. In class or pri- 
vate teaching young pupils will thrill to this story of Peter 
Rabbit’s adventures illustrated by cunning pictures and 
tuneful piano pieces, some with texts. Teachers will find 
it very acceptable for a novel pupils’ recital with the story 
dramatized in pantomime, according to directions included 
in the book. 

Piano — By Clarence Kohlmann 

Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

An especially noteworthy album contain- 
ing a line selection of the m 
sung hymns, arranged for 
enjoyment of their rendition 
Besides the enjoyment they 
the home player as piano \« 
be used to accompany hymn singing in 
Sunday School or at other religious services. 

— For Piano — By Clarence 
Kohlmann (75c) 

Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

This second book of Mr. Kolilmann's 

skilfully made hymn transcriptions for 
piano includes twenty-three transcriptions 

in grades three and four, besides 
instrumental numbers these transcript 
are adaptable to giving effective accorn 
paniments to solo or congregational mg 
ing, since suitable keys have been used, 
generally the original ones. 

For Piano 

By Johann Strauss (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

Playable pilno solo arrangements of a 
dozen most popular waltzes from the pc 
of the great Viennese composer, at 
which helped to immortalize the composer 
as "The Waltz King.” 

of Piano Solos for the Church 
or Home Pianist (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

This album contains piano compositions 
which carry one into the meditative m * 
perhaps to become somewhat at P 
with the world or to let the mind rom 
fancy-free. These 21 selections also are or 
a type suitable for church or Sund lay 
School service that will appeal to Pianists 
able to play fourth and fifth grade m 


Books marked (*) sold only in the U. S. A. 


kowsky) — A Story with Music 
for the Piano 

Arranged by Ada Richter (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

L h ,L to °k brings some of the most fasci- 
nating music ever written within reach of 

young p , ano studen , s whose " ««h of 

blllties do not exceed grade 3. The enter- 
taining story ,s charmingly illustrated. 


A Collection of Piano Pieces for 
the Crown-Up Music Lover — 
Compiled and Arranged by 
William M. Felton ($1.00) 
Holiday Cash Price, 70c 

This book includes piano solo arrange- 
ments "under the hands" of favorite 
songs, piano pieces, violin and organ 
numbers and even some orchestra compo- 
sitions, together with a couple of operatic 
selections. These arrangements easily can 
be played by those able to read third 
and fourth grade music. 

ALBUM ($1.00) 

Holiday Cash Price, 70c 

This album was compiled in response to 
popular demand by Mr. Federer's many 
admirers who recognize in his work good 
musical craftsmanship and a great gift 
for melody. Contents include a dozen 
numbers, among which are such rich 
rhythmic and melodic favorites as Lonely 
Dancer, Night in Vienna, Song At Mid- 
night, An Old Romance, Smoke Dreams, 
and Cute As Cotton. Teachers will find 
these useful with pupils in the third and 
fourth grades, and the average player 
will find diversion in playing them. 

WALTZES — Arranged for Piano 
Solo — by Stanford King (75c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

Frequent playing by orchestras the world 
over of great waltzes by Johann Strauss, 
Jr., Ivanovici, Waldteufel, Lehar, Oscar 
Straus and Rosas has made them fa- 
vorites of thousands. Such favorites are 
in this splendid piano album, giving the 
average home player as well as the piano 
pupil in third grade, good arrangements 
of 15 famous waltzes, including Artist s 
Life, Blue Danube, Estudiantina, Gold 
and Silver, Over the Waves, The Skaters, 
Tales from the Vienna Woods, and eight 

HYMNS — By Clarence Kohlmann 
($1.00) Holiday Cash Price, 75c 

The several published books of Clarence 
Kohlmann’s piano solo transcriptions of 
hymn melodies have established phenom- 
enal sales records, and, in response for 
similar material that might be presented 
as piano duets with two performers at one 
piano this book of Twenty Piano Duet 
Transcriptions was completed by the 
late Mr. Kohlmann. 

— Latest Revised Edition — By 
James Francis Cooke ($1.50) 
Holiday Cash Price, $1.10 

This book imparts a useful knowledge of 
music history and gives, like a thoroughly 
enjoyable story, the romance and lore of 
music. 321 pages. Over 200 illustrations. 
Nearly 900 names and well over 100 sub- 
jects are indexed, making it a superb, per- 
manently valuable reference volume _ on 
important composers and vital musical 
data. Cloth bound. 

— For the Crown-up Piano 
Student — Compiled and Arr. 
by Wm. M. Felton ($1.00) 
Holiday Cash Price, 70c 
Almost a half hundred melodies, known 
to music lovers as radio program signa- 
tures" and motion picture "theme music, 
are given here in easy piano arrangements. 
Younger students "In grade 3 will enjoy 
them, too. 



Holiday Cash Price, 90c 

It is doubtful if any collection of 
substantial piano duets anywhere 
near approaches this compilation in 
popularity. There is quite a variety. 
Players in grades three and four may 
handle most of them although sev- 
eral are a little more difficult. 

— For Piano Duet Players 

($ 1 . 00 ) 

Holiday Cash Price, 70c 

Numbers of a lighter type for re- 
cital use, or keyboard diversion, by 
players of moderate ability. Sway- 
ing Daffodils (Overlade), Dark 
Eyes, Sweet Jasmine (Vedova), and 
Hawaiian Nights (Grey) give some 
idea of the interesting contents. 

By Thomas Tapper 
( 1 7 Subjects in 1 7 Booklets) 
(20c Each) 

Holiday Cash Price, 12c Each 

With the 4 subjects added recently 
there are now 17 booklets in this 
series of fascinating biographies 
and "cut-out” pictures: Bach. Bee- 
thoven, Brahms, Chopin, Dvorak, 
Foster, Grieg, Handel, Haydn, 
Liszt, MacDowell, Mendelssohn, 
Mozart, Nevin, Schubert. Schu- 
mann, Sousa, Tschaikowsky, Verdi, 
and Wagner. 

Francis Cooke ($1.00) 
Holiday Cash Price, 75c 

One of the delights a child music student 
of today may have is this book which gives 
an acquaintance with important things 
concerning the growth of the art on down 
through the eras of all the great masters. 
Over 100 cut-out pictures, to be pasted rn 
proper spaces. 

By Elizabeth Gest (10c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 7c 

Thousands of children have enjoyed this 
educational story of Betty’s dream after 
her first symphony concert, where each 
instrument comes to life and tells all 
about its function in the ensemble and 
its relationship with other instruments. 

Holiday Cash Price, 75c 

Everybody knows how to play "dominoes" 
and this musical game is played in the 
same manner, giving the participants a 
thorough knowledge of note values. This 
always is a popular Christmas offering. 

By Daniel Bloomfield (60c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 45c 

A book of interesting musical games and 
puzzles which have high social and en- 
tertaining features besides educational 
worth for all music lovers, even the young 

For First Position Players 

Holiday Cash Price, 55c 

15 attractive and easy-to-play pieces. 
First position. 

and Edited by Charles Krane 

Holiday Cash Price, 60c 

In his experience with young cello stu- 
dents at Juilliard Music School, New 
York, and the Teachers’ College, Colum- 
bia University, Mr. Krane has seen the 
need for such material as he here offers. 
Gems from French, Bohemian, Dutch 
and Russian folksongs and melodies by 
Bach, Mozart, and Brahms comprise the 
dozen numbers which combine rhythm, 
variety, and elementary technical points. 

By H. A. Clarke 
Mus. Doc. 

(Pocket Size) (30c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 20c 

All the musical terms in common 
use are found in this compact little 
storehouse of musical information. 
Includes birth and death d^tes of 
over 350 famous musicians of all 


By H. N. Redman 
(Flex. Cloth — 60c) 
Holiday Cash Price, 45c 

This is a mighty fine and quite 
comprehensive dictionary of music 
terms. Convenient size, 4Vi" x 6". 

POEMS FOR PETER — A Beautiful 
Gift Book of Rote Songs — Texts 
by Lysbeth Boyd Borie — Set to 
Music by Ada Richter ($1.50) 
Holiday Cash Price, $1.20 
This is a most acceptable book of songs 
for the home or kindergarten and pre- 
school classes. Mrs. Borie’s two books of 
verse. Poems for Peter and More Poems 
for Peter, are known to many mothers 
and teachers. Mrs. Richter has chosen 
from these books 16 of the most adaptable 
verses and has given them clever musical 
settings that children will delight in sing- 
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This is neither a method, nor a study 
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tion for Pipe Organ with Ham- 
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( These Albums have glossy, soil-resisting covers) 





Once again it is Kimball’s pleasure, for the 90th consecutive year, 
to extend a Christmas Greeting to all those to whom MUSIC 
is an interesting and important part of living. To the 
teachers, who have so faithfully imparted musical knowledge to 


m sj qj ® s fi m @ 


By Theodore presser Co., Philadelphia i. Pa. 
editorial advisory staff 

DR JAMES FRANCIS COOKE. Editor - in - Chief 
Guy McCoy and Ethel M. McKray, Assistant Ed, tors 
Dr. Rob Roy Peery, Music Editor 

Dr. Nicholas Douty Karl W. Gehrkens Dr. Guy Maier 

rx :i ciu-horii Dr. Alexander McCurdy 

N. Clifford Page 

Harold Berkley Dr. Nicholas uouvy a.ui w . . wm. 
Ruth Evans Buhman Maurice Dumesml Elizabeth Gest 
Pietro Deiro Edna Fort George C. Krick 

11 KJ i-uua •» s'*’ 

William D. Revelli 

Peter Hugh Reed 


Contents for &£)ecember, 194 7 




James Francis Cooke G65 


Christmas Dawn (Poem) . 


Silent Night, Holy Night! Latin Mat, el Dunn 666 

America’s Great Peace Hymn F L. McFadden G67 

The Teacher’s Round Table Maurice Dumettn i! 668 

An Amazing Subterranean Oratorio Performance (Carlsbad Caverns) Joy Media 669 

Keep It Natural! Eileen Farrell 670 

The Revival of the English Carol Cur de Brant 671 

What Gives a Violin Tone? Francis Drake Ballard 672 

The Joyous Mendelssohn Helen Johnson 673 


New Recorded Treasures for Music Lovers Peter Hugh Reed 674 

The Etude Music Lover's Bookshelf B. Meredith Cadi nan 675 


The Pianist’s Page Dr. Guy Maier 676 

Musician, Don’t Worry About Your Heart! Waldemar Schweisheimer, M.D. 677 

Intelligent Care of the Singing Voice Robert Weede 679 

The Evolution of Electricity in the Organ Rowland W Dunham 680 

Chi Va Piano, Va Lontano Dr. Alexander McCurdy 681 

“Sing Unto the Lord a New Song" Maynard Klein 682 

Building the String Bass Section Lei and R. Long 6 S3 

The Violinist’s Forum Harold Berkley 685 

Questions and Answers Dr. Karl W. Gehrkens 686 

Young People in Music Malcolm Sargent 687 

What the Singer Needs for a Career in Radio Jane Wilson 688 


fingers large and small, talented and sometimes less than talented, 
eager and perhaps occasionally not quite eager ... To the 
students, more of whom have learned on Kimball pianos 
than on those of any other make . . . And to all music lovers, of 
whom more than half a million have, during the past ninety years, 
selected Kimball-made pianos. 

With gratitude for the friendship and cooperation, without which 
those years of progress would not have been possible, we 
look forward to many more of service to music, and to many 
more holiday times when it will again, as now, be appropriate to 
say "Merry Christmas” and "Thank You”. 

Classic and Contemporary Selections 

Dusk Dreams (Presser *27893) Joseph M. Hopkins 689 

Song of the North (Presser *27890) James Francis Cooke 690 

Au Matin (Presser 911) Benjamin Godard Op. 83 692 

Chimes at Christmas (Presser 11451) jyf Greenwald 694 

Heart’s Desire (Presser *27836)., Frank Grey 696 

Wanderlust (Presser 27827) O. Scheldrup Oberg 697 

March of the Shepherds (Presser) (From “Chapel Musings”) 

Arr. by Rob Roy Peery Cyrus s 698 

Vocal and Instrumental Compositions 
Largo, from Sona-ta III (Ditson) (Violin and Piano) 

(From “Ditson Edition No. 321”) F 

Christmas Fantasy (Excerpt) (Presser *27415) 

*5tiJn°vw atl ?r>-t f0Ur i h /Sl dS ? Clarence Kohlmann 700 

Star Divine (Ditson) (Christmas Song— low voice) Andre VeneuJ 702 

PrXde^ P n 0 n n Fam r H M C ~ ar ( ° rgan) (Ditson) (From “Twelve Choral 

n r P fcf J l P- Famil ‘ ar H y mn Tunes”) H. Alexander Matthews 704 

Delightful Pieces for 1 oung Players 

(P j ano Duet ) (Presser) (From “The Child Handel”) 

Arr. by Ruth Bampton r v . , 7n ~ 

1 tz 0 "“ “ 

fttifx&zstfEzr b ’ “■ '***'■ '■ 

Merry Elves (Presser 27617) 

Dance of the Paper Dolls (Ditson) ... ............ 



The Town That Lost Its Christmas. 

Voice Questions Answered 

Organ Questions Answered 

Violin Questions Answered 

Annual Index 

Ella Ketterer 708 

.Anna Priscilla Risher 709 
Bobbs Travis 710 


..Ralph Trowbridge 678 
Dr. Nicholas Douty 715 
■ Frederick Phillips 717 

Harold Berkley 719 


Entered as second-class matter January 16. 1884 at the P D nt Phil* v * 

vMtrJSsteJF- CoM ™ ct: 

Single copy, Price 25 cents 1 ' cw,ounaland - «-50 a year in ail other countries. 





From a painting by N. Barabino 

a ristmad 


(Beneath uS ail, Oh if everlasting arms, dear Jlord, 
Bring faith anew this holg Cdh ris tin a s tide, 

Oo looh hegond the rising mists of troubled gears 
_And see the light of Peace, long since denied. 

D he little Child in Warg ’s arms this dag reveals 
O lie beautg of the angels' deathless Song, 

Cfood will and brotherhood to everg man ; 

Ohe triumph of the human Soul o'er wrong. 

Ohe music of the heavenlg choir transcends 
Bite din and discord of unseeing lands, 
cJdet (dhris tmaS jog and cheer exalt them alt \ 
Bend food and love to meet their Sore demands ; 

Bing loud Odosannahs, all ge men of? earth! 
Bigain Clod's light sh ines o er a wor U of, 
B.LLl A. coming of the cjofclen clawn 7 

’^Jor now the fittfe Chi (cl of Qod is here! 


Cjlcid Christmas (greetings and a joyous flew IJt 
Oo <£ tude Jriends WK Over the World! 





Who wrote the tune and accompanied its 
first performance on his guitar. As shown on 
stained glass window in memorial chapel. 

This edifice is typical of the style 
of church architecture in Austria. 


The village priest of Arntdorf, who wrote 
the words of the carol. As shown on 
stained glass window in memorial chapel. 

Silent Night Holy Night! 

2 >, 


An English authoress, in this article written for The Etude, comments upon the universally used old Christ- 
mas carol, written with peasant simplicity, which carries the deathless message of the Christmas spirit to 
millions in all lands. 

May this -lovely, chaste Christmas song, written in Austria by a composer born one hundred and, sixty 
years ago, be the token of a return of the Spirit of Christ to a land all but obliterated at the hand of the 
Anti-Christ! The Austrian carol is heard all over the world. Editor's Note 

S ILENT NIGHT, Holy night! Four simple words 
which, however, have the magic power to bring 
to almost all who read them one of the most 
beautiful “tunes” ever written, the lovely Christmas 
carol which has “circled the world.” Choirs will sing it, 
orchestras will broadcast it, bells will ring it out, and 
records of it will be bought and sent as presents on this 
and many future Christmases. 

But what is the true story of this carol? For perhaps 
no other has been so much sentimentalized or romanced 

For a long time the lovely tune and beautiful words 
were just taken for granted; then inquiries revealed 
that it came from Austria, which surprised no one, but 
merely meant that the world was all the more in- 
debted to that country, from which so much beautiful 
music had already flowed. Even then, few knew the 
name of its composer, and those who did learn his 
name knew little of him and probably often wondered 
if he wrote other lovely music which was still to be 
heard. Then stories began to appear in papers and 
magazines about the composer of the carol, Silent 
Night. It was said “that he wrote it when walking 
home through the deep snow from Christmas Mass,” 
or “while sitting at the bedside of a sick child,” or 
that he really “heard angels sing it one Christmas 
night!” and many other stories as charming, as fanciful. 

In the summer of 1946, having the happy privilege of 
revisiting Austria to attend the revival of the Salzburg 
Festival, I made request of my Austrian hosts, “Could 


I be told the true story of Silent Night, Holy Night?” 
Certainly I could ! And with a thoroughness which they 
display for nothing as much as matters pertaining to 
music, the cathedral organist in Salzburg (Professor 
Messner, famous for his extemporizing and composing 
who has played in Canterbury Cathedral) arranged a 
special visit for me to Arnsdorf, the actual village of 
the hymn s conception, and a full revealing of the 

Lives of the Composers 

-It would perhaps have been more romantic to have 
visited and secured my story in the winter near Christ 
mas, but as a matter of fact, it had to be on a lovelv 
day of early autumn, when there was a slight mist on 
the quiet mountains, and dahlias and white phlox werp 
blooming in all the gardens. 

I was motored out from Salzburg through the pleas 
ant country, which I need not describe, to a tiny village 
about thirty miles from Salzburg, named Arnsdorf? 
have called it “tiny”; as a matter of fact, it consisted 
as far as I could see, of a lovely old church (st’ 
Nicholas) with its surrounding graves, and on one side 
of the road, leading to its entrance gate, a small school 
house, and on the other, a stable sheltering the 
cream colored oxen which still do most of the fa4 
work in Austria. On the main road were a few pi 
turesque cottages and a small baker’s shop 1 

The story centers around two men Franz Criih 
schoolmaster and organist at Arnsdorf and Josef Mato! 


his great friend, who was the vicar at the adjoining 
village of Obendorf. 

Franz Griiber was born on November 25. 1787, at 
Unterweizberg, the son of a linen weaver, and early in 
life it is said of him that he "fell in love" with music 
and learned to play the violin and organ. 

When he was twenty, he was appointed schoolmaster 
and organist at Arnsdorf, and (alas for ambitions) 
there he remained in that tiny, remote place for twen- 
ty-one years, with (as he imagined) nothing to show 
for his time! He finally became choirmaster at Hallein 
Parish Church, which he probably considered a very 
fine appointment: and he died there in 1863. 

Josef Mohr, priest and poet, was born in Salzburg 
in 1792, a son of a musketeer serving the Archbishop. 
When he was a little boy he sang in the choir of St. 
Peters Church there, and after finishing his studies 
at the Salzburg Grammer School, he became a priest 
in 1815. He stayed at Obemdorf and finally died in 
1848 in a little village in the mountains in the Province 
of Salzburg. 

Such were the very simple, innocent lives of two 
men who loved music, beauty, and spiritual things all 
their lives, and who went on their way, having “ob- 
ained a good report,” and, all unknown to themselves, 
having written a “masterpiece” of poetry’ and music 
which many grateful hearts in the world count much 
more precious than either opera or symphony. 

,, , s ., 0 , tbe manner of the writing of the carol, I was 
th ,? WOrds were wri «en first, and that needing 
, g neW " for Chrl stmas, Franz Gruber picked 
p , . e ov fy tune on his old gultaT one evening near 

ten ?L t r e j 11 ( ng ,!; hat Silent Night, Holy Night wa 
ten there in the year 1818. 

and h we g fm rd !T n u* the house hurrl ed out to gi 
entrance big broadcas ting van drawn up 

lages (nmol' e . churchi and about twenty curii 
round P tlcaIly the entire population!) g: 

in the srh^ time the ° ther guests were not 
but I writ , roorn because a rehearsal was go 

shabjy SuTsZT quletl >' in ’ there, i 
fashioned rwu room ' with its dozen or 
I listened i marked with the scholars’ 

0 the immortal ( Continued on Pa 


America’s Great Peace Hymn 


The Story of “America, the Beautiful” and 
Its Composer, Samuel A. Ward 

Lj (C. oC. liic^J-actcbn 

Millions of Americans are now realizing that this patriotic hymn, with words by Katharine Lee Bates and 
music by Samuel A. Ward, embodies far more of the power, the glory, the grandeur, and force of the 
permanent ideals of America than any of the purely militant hymns. The men coming back from all 
Ws who have survived our wars and who are seeking to build a greater and more secure nation, know 
the need of defense, but they are intent upon those elements in our national life upon 
ness is founded. 

W IND RUFFLED the long skirts of the ladies 
on the Coney Island excursion boat. Harbor 
gulls wheeled around the vessel in a sky ballet 
to the music of an itinerant “orchestra,” a fiddle and 
accordion combination. Two men stood at the boat s 
rail watching New York grow bigger when suddenly 
one, a stocky, mustaehed man, began to hum a tune. 

“Harry,” he said to his friend, “if I had something 
to write on, I’d put down a tune that has just come 

Harry dug in his pockets. He fumbled through his 
coat, his trousers, his vest, searching for some paper. 
Finding none, he took off a starched linen cuff and 
gave it to his friend who, leaning on the boat rail, drew 
a staff and clef and Wrote the melody of America, the 

Thus, in a summer evening’s contentment, was writ- 
ten the song that is the country’s hymn of home, a 
paean beloved by patriotic citizens for its simplicity 
and charm. 

Its composer was Samuel Augustus Ward, dignified, 
Victorian organist and choir master, who was born in 
Newark, New Jersey, one hundred years ago this month. 
Ward virtually unknown to the general public, pur- 
sued an unhurried, artistic life leaving less than a 
dozen of his own compositions and first claim to the 
title, “forgotten man of American music.” 

Ward himself never knew of his melody’s popularity, 
and the millions who sing it know little or nothing 
of him. The family scrapbook shows only incidental 
public mention of his popular work, for only 'on rare 
occasions have reporters sought out the family for 
information about the composer. The clippings lack 
completely a published account of the composition of 
the tune as given above, an account given by the com- 
poser’s scholarly son-in-law, Rev. Henry W. Armstrong 
of Allenhurst, New Jersey. From time to time the min- 
ister tells a congregation the story which the Wards 
heard from the composer and from Harry Martin, his 
companion who parted with the starched cuff. If few 
know his claim to fame, even fewer know of his life. 

Conductor-T eacher 

A natural-born musician, he was a piano teacher in 
his ’teens, an organist by the time he was twenty, suc- 
cessful operator of a leading Newark music store in 
his maturity, and founder and conductor of the Orpheus 
Club men’s chorus. 

He died in 1903. In 1912 his widow received a re- 
quest from the president of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College at Amherst for permission to use the 
hymn tune in connection with Miss Bates’ poem, which 
had been included in a collection of her poems pub- 
lished the previous year. 

The family let the copyright lapse. Ward’s tune be- 
longs to the people with whom it has found favor. His 
daughters, Mrs. Armstrong and Mrs. Wallace H. Blan- 
chard, also of Allenhurst, show pride in their father’s 
work but, in his tradition, are not “pushy” in claiming 
credit to him for the melody which was performed for 
the first time in Grace Episcopal Church, Newark, in 
1882, by some two hundred men and boys, some using 
manuscript copies, some single printed sheet copies. 

According to Rev. Armstrong, Ward deeply loved the 
music of Robert Schumann and often said in the early 
days of his married life that if he ever had a son he 
would name him Robert Schumann Ward. He had four 
daughters. His first child was named Clara after the 
composer’s wife. When this daughter, his favorite, died 
of scarlet fever at the age of seven. Ward grieved in- 
tensely. He wrote the tune in her honor. 

Its first stanza probably expressed his feelings at 
the time: 

“O Mother dear, Jerusalem, 

When shall I come to thee? 

When shall my sorrows have an end? 

Thy joys when shall I see?” 

The meter was perfect for its later use. Eventually 
included in the Episcopal Hymnal, the hymn finally 
found its way into the hymn books of other denomina- 
tions. Its author apparently forgot about it and turned 
his attention to other, more seemingly important, mat- 

Early Musical Talent 

Son of George Spencer Ward and Abbie Ann Tich- 
enor, Ward spent his boyhood in the New Jersey city. 
He broke his leg when he was six and his father, to 

amuse him during the long convalescence, gave him an 
accordion. His natural bent for music quickly showed 
itself and in no time at all he was playing the airs of 
Stephen Foster and others on his accordion. By the 
time his father, a shoemaker, was incapacitated by a 
similar accident four years later, the boy had already 
developed his talents to the point where, forced to 
leave school, he was able to earn his own way and 
eventually to support his 

The youngster switched 
to the piano and, while still 
in his ’teens, had a number 
of pupils. His early profi- 
ciency at the organ is shown 
by the fact that at about 
the age of sixteen he was 
organist at the Collegiate 
Church of St. Nicholas in 
New York. During this peri- 
od he studied harmony with 
Jan Pychowski in the me- 
tropolis. He was later or- 
ganist at several Newark 
churches, including Grace 
Episcopal Church where he 
held that position during 
the 1890s. 

Meanwhile he had set up 
a music shop on Broad 
street, a business in which 
he achieved a high stand- 
ing in the growing com- 
munity. His attitude toward 
his customers, many of 
whom bought instruments 
on the time installment 
plan, was kindly and tem- 
perate. Even when he had 
a large staff of employees, 

•Ward would make a per- 
sonal visit to the home of 
debtors to learn the in- 
dividual difficulties which 
might dictate new payment 
arrangements. He was kind- 
ly, but valued money as only 
a boy who had left school at 
ten to earn his living could. 

Mrs. Armstrong tells the story of the gentle, stocky 
man walking through the Ironbound section of New- 
ark in the late 1890s and halting at the sound of chil- 
dren’s voices from a schoolroom window. They were 
singing his hymn, O Mother dear, Jerusalem. He told 
his family later: “I stood and listened until they fin- 
ished it. I never realized until I heard those dean little 

children singing it how beautiful my melody is. It was 
a very moving experience.” 

Today, were he alive, the dignified, Victorian gentle- 
man would have the joy of knowing that not only 
“dear little school children” sing his song but all 
America is moved by its beauty. Many an American, 
essaying the high notes of The Star-Spangled Banner, 
feels a rush of feeling for the lyric tune. 

A self-made man in the 
expanding industrialism of 
his day, Ward maintained 
throughout his life his deep 
love of the arts. His en- 
gagement present to his 
bride, Virginia B. Ward, no 
relative, w’as a picture of 
Dante’s "Beatrice.” When 
the couple were setting up 
their home his wife re- 
monstrated with him for 
bringing home a large land- 
scape, saying, “But we need 
furniture — ” He answered, 
“We can get along without 
a lot of furniture, but W’e 
have to have art.” 

Deep Appreciation 
of the Arts 

At home in the evenings 
he would sit reading beside 
a large table, centered in 
the room and lighted by an 
overhanging light. He was 
partial to Dickens, Scott’s 
“Waverly Novels,” and the 
poetry of Longfellow and 
Tennyson. As was the cus- 
tom in his day, he took his 
main meal at noontime, 
coming home from the mu- 
sic store for dinner, and 
often composing at his 
piano before returning to 
work. He never used score 
pads but w T ould draw his 
own staff and plotted his 
melodies with due regard 
for harmonic niceties. 
When one of his daughters developed a talent for 
playing the piano by ear, he admonished her with, 
“You mustn’t play it that way. Listen to Papa and 
don’t play the music by ear. Learn to read what the 
composer wrote. You’ll never be a true musician unless 
you know harmony.” He pursued his liking of art in 
a “grand tour” of Europe (Continued on Page 713) 

This damaged photograph, taken from a family album, 
is the only picture The Etude was able to secure of 
Samuel A. Ward. 

DECEMBER, 194 7 



Don’t Look, But Listen! 

What do you think of the teaching value 
of having beginners play some of their 
memorized pieces, especially those in five- 
finger positions, with eyes shut, or fixed 
on a wall before them; or in the case of 
unmemorized pieces, with a book held 
over the hands, to develop the sense of 
touch and independence of seeing the 
fingers move? I accompany these require- 
ments with talk of how clever the fingers 
are, how able to take care of themselves 
without watch-dog supervision, how eager 
to accept responsibility for their own 
walking and running. We even bemoan 
the overwork of the poor neck which has 
to keep bobbing the head up and down 
when too much looking at the keyboard 
goes on. Is this good pedagogy?— (Miss) 

B. W. J., Georgia. 

May I refer you to my paragraph on 
“Getting distance,” published in The 
Exude of June, 1947, for it deals with a 
similar, though more advanced question. 

I consider as good pedagogy, anything 
that will bring more freedom and flexi- 
bility in the performance, and this is 
true at all grades. Developing the sense 
of touch is a valuable process, and . in 
this the piano goes hand in hand with 
the typewriter. Have you ever watched 
expert typists in action? Their fingers 
fairly fly over the keys, but their eyes 
remain fixed elsewhere, namely, on their 
short-hand dictation books. Naturally it 
takes a long time to acquire this high 
degree of accuracy, and patience is in 
order. But the sooner the start, the better 
the results will be. The same applies to 
the keyboard of a piano. Here, however, 
distances are far greater; but if you de- 
part from the elementary five-finger 
position very gradually, difficulties should 
not prove insurmountable. 

It is important to listen carefully for 
wrong notes, and to correct them at once 
whenever they occur. 

Your little comments should be a good 
help, for anything which appeals to the 
imagination of young pupils is bound to 
react favorably on their technical work. 
Thus complexes are avoided, and the so- 
lution of all problems is made easier. 

Weak Fifth Fingers 

Can you recommend some exercises that 
will help to train the muscular action of 
the fifth, or little fingers of both hands? I 
will appreciate any help you are able to 
give me. — M. G., Indiana. 

The best exercises for the development 
of the little fingers are the most simple 
ones. You can make up any number of 
your own, on the order of the following 
patterns : 

The Teacher’s Hound Table 

Conducted by 
Wlaurice jbumeSnif 

Eminent French-American 
Pianist, Conductor, Lecturer 
and Teacher 

Correspondents with this Depart- 
ment are requested to limit letters 
to One Hundred and Fifty Words. 

cles cannot be built up in a week, or a 
month. Most important: this practice 
should be carried out several times every 

transposition is accessible only to the 
chosen ones who have mastered a 
secrets of harmony and counterpom^ 
This is contrary to the truth. All that 
needed is a thorough knowledge of the 
seven clefs, with a quick recognition of 
which accidentals must be modified, and 
which must remain unchanged. 

There is no magical system whereby 
this knowledge can be acquired hurriedly , 
and before you start you ought to be 
fully aware that it takes practice, con- 
centration, and steadfastness of purpose 
to accomplish anything worth-while. 
But with the proper stamina, what a 

accurate perception of values, the knowl- 
edge of lines, spaces, and signs, with the 
fundamentals of musical theory. 

Recently I had an opportunity to 
watch a demonstration of the Dunning 
' System. It impressed me as having great 
possibilities in difficult cases where fum- 
bling, fluttery, erratic youngsters are 
concerned. This, because it captures their 
interest, and holds it keyed up through 
personal accomplishment and manual 

In the March, 1947, issue of The Etude, 
Page 180, you will find some addresses 
where more information is available. 

Is Counting .Necessary? 

Having read with 
and your answer cor 
of counting ( In Th 
would appreciate or 
opinion of audible c 
exercises, studies, "p: 
practicing and lesst 
course, piano in pa 
counting seems to t 
what would you rec 
agree that counting 
adequate and unsati: 

>e ob 

rst the question 
ng the necessity 
;dc for July) I 
ression of your 
ng for technical 
’ everything, for 
Instrumental, of 
;tr. A monotone 
Jectionable; just 
i*nd? Would you 
ourself" was in- 

lrs.) S. V.. Ohio. 

day, in very short periods of two or three rich reward will be yours! 


(Left hand: reversed) . 
Practice very slowly at first, without 
•ying to get much tone volume, for what 
latters here is the correct position of 
le hand and the proper action of the 
ttle finger which must remain curved, 
ithout any “bending in.” 

When more strength is acquired, you 
m introduce rhythms and transpose 
ito other keys in order to bring variety 
E approach. 

But . . . “take time to take time!” Mus- 

minutes each. 

And watch that the held-down notes 
remain mute, with the fingers resting 
right at the bottom of the keys. 

Scientific Transposition 

In The Etude of February 1947, you an- 
swered an inquiry about transposition. I 
found this exceedingly interesting, as I 
include simple transposition with my 
teaching, and wish to extend my own 
knowledge of transposition. I am familiar 
with transposing up one-half, and one 
whole step, and down the same number, 
and know what to do with the accidentals 
occurring. If a piece modulates a great 
deal it is difficult and I should like to 
learn all the points. I am not familiar 
with the “C” clef. Can you give me the 
name of some material concerning trans- 
position that will be really helpful, in 
which I can find the “C” clef notation? I 
wish to learn every phase of transposi- 
tion.— (Mrs.) G. P. L., Texas. 

Congratulations for your earnest de- 
sire to become proficient in the most in- 
teresting subject of transposition. This 
is indeed a fascinating study, dealing as 
it does with the highest standards of 
musicianship; still, and for some un- 
known reason, there is not any branch 
of musical education that is so neglect- 
ed, and even so ignored. 

The music of the past, with its simple 
melodic line and plain harmonies, was 
easily transposed at sight by anyone en- 
dowed with a little musical sense. But 
things are different nowadays, and no 
one could boast of being able to trans- 
pose at sight the elaborate piano parts 
of modern songs. Sure enough, many ac- 
companists or orchestra musicians feel 
the necessity of such an equipment, and 
by instinct and guessing they develop a 
partial acquaintance with it. This is en- 
tirely inadequate, however, and only the 
use of a scientific method can lead to 

It has sometimes - been claimed that 

For a suitable material, I strongly rec- 
ommend to you the “Complete Treatise 
on Transposition” (second edition) by 
Charles Lagourgue. It contains every- 
thing you need, and it can be secured 
through the publishers af The Exude. 

More Fumbling 

I want to thank you for your answer in 
the August issue of The Etude, to the Ore- 
gon teacher as to “The Fumbler.” It gives 
me consolation, for I have had, and still 
have, the same problem. Right now I have 
a student whose habit is not reading too 
fast, but reading “by ear and fingering.” 
She is about eight years old, very bright 
and very musical. She is just finishing her 
first year book. But if I let her go on in 
the next book she will be discouraged: 
yet she is tired of Book I. She does not 
know her lines and spaces. She will play C 
third space, Treble Clef, correctly, and not 
know it in the next measure. Her mother 
is disgusted with her, and I, discouraged. 
Can you suggest what to do? I am greatly 
humiliated because of my seeming failure. 

— (Mrs.) P. M. P., Kansas. 

There . . . There ... No discourage- 
ment, please! There is no failure on your 
part, and humiliation is ruled out. The 
fault lies entirely with your pupil who 
lacks totally the power of concentration 
that even a little girl eight years old 
should begin to possess. Her mind is un- 
able to dwell on anything. Although she’s 
“bright and musical” her attention is of 
the flash variety, incapable of staying 
put more than a few seconds at a time' 
if that long. 

To a certain extent I understand her 
mother’s and your own feelings. Ap it ic • _ ° • 

In practicing (either exercises, studies, 
or pieces) , counting is necessary so that 
strict time is maintained and no “rac- 
ing away" is allowed to take place. The 

metronome is a great 
subsequent Increases 
able, they can be acc 
matically graded. Be 
evenness of its beats 
which is more than 

help because when 
of speed are advis- 
urately and mathe- 
Ing mechanical, the 
is safe and secure, 
I could say* about 

the routine, monotonous audible count- 
ing to which you refer. As to the matter 
of judging when to count, and for how 
long at a time, it depends on the pupil 
and ought to be left to each teachers 
discrimination. Counting “to one's self 
is O. K. for artists or very advanced stu- 
dents; still, every now and then they 
rely on their metronome for checking-up 
purposes. There is a new metronome 
which gives either beau of adjustable 
strength, or a flash of light. This ought 
to prove a valuable aid. It can be secured 
through the publishers of The Exude. 

Like s the Light C. lassies 

After reading your paragraph, 
cheers for the light classics.” in the Aug 
Etude, I ordered a load of them, , a " d 
delighted pupils are to relax with th 
things our mothers taught us! Even if tn y 
are considered old-fashioned and 
moded by certain circles, these harmo 
ous sounds are a joy to listen to o 
again. Would you give me a list <8™“ 

if possible) of light, pleasing composition 
by European composers, and Gottsc 
too. which you like particularly and c 
sider good for teaching or recital purpos • 
— (Mrs ) M. H. U-, Arizona. 

I am so glad to hear of that favorable 
reaction of your pupils! Believe me, 


that the 'situation^T^nf ' vf Ut } believe shows good teste on their part. Now tor 

I may have a solution to oZ ' a 50mewhat m ° re ^"^^ignace 

What vour sturiem- ,i 6 ' compositions of Sydney Smith, I»“ 

that will help her L it wer P S ° methlng LeybaCh ’ FritZ Spindler ' LefttUre '2 

of herself”; "oSL tha I ’J? X * ?' hich our mothers or grandmothers 

into her, away from th^evhe 1 ,< buUd 1156(1 t0 reve1 ’ 1 can recommend: 

y irom the keyboard, an (Continued on Page 721) 







An Amazing Subterranean 
Oratorio Performance 

An Astonishing Account of a Notable Concert 750 Feet 
Underground in a Fabulous American Cavern Fairyland 

tnj 1/fjedi 

Over three thousand have lunched here daily, 
seven hundred and fifty-four feet underground. 


The author of this article desires to express his thanks to Mr. Victor L M nt , Secrete of ^-ber of 

Commerce, Carlsbad. New Mexico for much of ^^^“Xarbaonta a d h i Varied wonders that 
Caverns are only one of scares of archeological. an’ , P ° !° “ hem h a determination to return, 
attract thousands of Americans to New Mexico yearly and leave them with -Editor's Note. 


NE OF THE MOST unusual concerts ever given 
in any country was the performance of Haydn’s 
^ “The Creation,” which took place on May 6, 1933, 
the bewilderingly great Carlsbad Caverns, New 
xico under the direction of Mr. Roscoe P. Conklmg. 

Conkling, a pupil of Dudley Buck and Antonin 
irak, is a leading musical figure in El Paso, Texas. 

wife has the degree of Mus. Bac. The success of 
; performance, and the dignified conditions under 
ich it was given, were due to the initiative, per- 
ence, and artistic experience of this couple, who 
nulated an interest in the project and overcame 
lost impossible natural obstacles, to attain a fin- 
ed performance. 

7he work was presented in one of the huge under- 
>und halls of the caverns by the Haydn Oratorio 
liety of El Paso, assisted by choirs from the neigh- 
ing cities of Artesia, Carlsbad, Deming, and Ros- 
11 and the El Paso Symphony Orchestra. The per- 
mance started at 7.30 P. M. It began with an In- 
jation by the Rev. S. C. Walker, followed by an 
dress of Welcome by Superintendent Thomas Boles, 
the Caverns. 

\ large corps of finely trained and courteous Rangers 
kept at the caverns daily. These men and women 
t as guides, lecturers, and supervisors to escort the 
B at crowds of visitors daily. 

Haydn completed “The Creation” in 1797 (the year 

of the birth of Schubert), when he was 
sixty-five years of age. The text of The 
Creation” was originally prepared in Eng- 
glish by Lidley, and is taken from Genesis 
and Milton’s “Paradise Lost.” It was then 
translated into German as “Die Schop- 
fung” and presented for the first time 
privately in the Schwartzenburg Palace, 
Vienna, April 29 and 30, 1798 — nearly one 
hundred and fifty years ago. It was sung 
in Covent Garden, London, in 1800, and 
was first given completely in America in 
Boston in 1819, although parts of the 
oratorio were performed in Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, in 1810. “The Creation” 
probably ranks with Handel’s “Messiah” 
and Mendelssohn’s “Elijah” as one of 
the three oratorios most frequently given. 
Haydn certainly never imagined that his 
work would be presented in such a be- 
wildering and awe-inspiring auditorium 
as the Carlsbad Caverns. Haydn’s orches- 
tral introduction to the oratorio, Repre- 
sentation of Chaos, which in its day was 
regarded as a supreme burst of modern- 
ism, now seems very perfunctory and 
orthodox in harmony. The caverns would 
surely have been ( Continued on Page 724) 


In the huge subterranean auditorium it was formerly the custom for the 
Rangers to sing Rock of Ages. The vast crowds continually moving 
through the caverns have made this impressive experience impossible. 



Keep It Natural! 

Eileen ^darrell 

Popular Young American Soprano 
Featured Soloist of the Columbia Broadcasting System 


At twenty-six, Eileen Farrell enjoys a five-year record as one of the most gifted and most popular singers 
on any network. The year 1947 marks the fifth consecutive season that she has been summer star o e 
Sunday afternoon "Family Hour," an assignment she carries along with her own regular Friday evening 
program. In all her work, Miss Farrell is known for the rich natural beauty of her voice, her impeccable 
musicianship, and the versatility with which she interprets songs that range, in type, from simple ballads 
through operatic arias to the difficult atonal cadences of Alban Berg's "Wozzeck. Miss Farrell was born 
in Connecticut, and music has been part of her life as long as she can remember. Both her parents 
are singers; prior to their retiremerft from the stage, they performed in vaudeville as The O Farrells. 
On settling down in Connecticut, Mrs. Farrell continued professional music as organist and choir leader 
in the local Catholic Church, and as teacher of singing. Eileen sang in her babyhood and got pointers 
from her mother without realizing that she was being taught. She sang in school, and in the choir, and 
began formal studies at the age of nineteen, under Merle Alcock, a friend of her mother's and former 
contralto of the Metropolitan Opera Association. A strict taskmaster, Mme. Alcock gave the girl a 
thorough grounding in vocal emission, but found that her gifted pupil was a natural singer, accom- 
plishing drills and exercises almost without guidance. Eileen remained an Alcock pupil for five years, 
after the first two of which she was permitted to audition for CBS. She made her debut with the Phila- 
delphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy, and sang with the New York Philharmonic Symphony Orches- 
tra under Bruno Walter. She concertizes and looks forward to performing in opera, preferably Wagner. 
In private life, Miss Farrell is Mrs. Robert Reagen and extremely proud of her domestic ability. She 
likes to cook, bake, and knit, and she takes expert care of Robert Junior. — Editor's Note. 


APPROACH The Etude as an old friend; I’ve 
studied the magazine — words and music!— since I 
-could read, and never have put down a copy with- 
out having drawn some practical value from it. Re- 
cently, The Etude rendered me more than musical 
service, too! I picked up a handsome old clock at an 
antique shop, but found that it needed some repairs. 
Among other things, it needed a decorative panel for 
the front. My father promised to fix it up for me, and 
when it was done, I was delighted to find a handsome 
picture of Wagner on the front panel. It looked won- 
derful and I asked my father if he had gone to great 
expense to get the picture. ‘Expense?’ he laughed; 
‘No, indeed. I clipped it off the cover of an old Etude!’ 
So there you are! 

“I don’t know how helpful I shall be in paying my 
debt to The Etude, however — I really don’t have a great 
deal to say about how to sing. On the other hand, that 
may be the most useful advice I can give: don’t fuss, 
and fret, and think about singing too self-consciously. 
Singing, after all, should be a perfectly natural func- 
tion. It seems to me that a lot of vocal troubles .grow 
out of trying to do things to your voice, your body, your 
breath. Now, I’m no singing teacher! I am told that I 
have a sound natural emission and I’ve never had any 
special problems to overcome. The only hints I am 
able to give, therefore, derive from my own experience. 
And that experience has been to do as little fussing as 
possible and to let the tones come! 

Natural Breathing 

“Perhaps that’s the best course to take. It can hap- 
pen, of course, that a singer is unfortunate enough 
to have some physical obstacle to free, natural emis- 
sion; and in such a case, naturally, special means of 
remedy must be sought. Normally speaking, however, 
there should be no reason why singing cannot be as 
natural, as free from self-consciousness as everyday 
talking. The theory on which I proceed is that difficul- 
ties won’t come up unless they are made to come up by 
bad habits. Good singing is natural, and should be 
kept natural! 


“The really important points of approach are correct 
(that means natural!) breathing, and the most careful 
attention possible to good, pure, true vowels. Natural 
breath is diaphragmatic, supported by the strong ab- 
dominal muscles. No, you don’t have to go through a 
lot of motions to make it that way— it is that way. All 
you have to do is to see that nothing makes it different. 
I just said that I have had no special problems. Nor- 
mally, that is accurate — but once, after an operation, 
my abdominal walls were weakened to the point where 
I feared to draw a deep, ‘conscious’ breath. Every time 
I thought about my breathing and did things to fetch 
a deep breath, it hurt. Of course, I was worried beyond 
words— but then J decided to forget about it. And the 
moment I did forget and stopped doing things with my 
breathing and my thoughts about breathing, it got 
better and easier. And then a strange thing happened 
— keeping away from the conscious kind of deep 
breathing, I found I had enough natural, unconscious 
breath to carry me through my phrases! Maybe there's 
a lesson in that. 

Scale Practice Important 

“After sound, natural breath support, the singer 
needs pure vowels, and you can’t work hard enough at 
mastering them. There is something about the purity 
of vowel sound— I don’t know what!— that in itself aids 
tonal projection. Each singer discovers a special vowel 
that ‘sits’ most naturally on her voice. That is the best 
vowel on which to begin the stint of daily practice— 
but then get away from it and work on the others' 
One of the singer’s earliest goals should be the mas- 
tery of all vowels, so that they fit naturally into the 

“I believe firmly in scales! The daily practice period 
should begm with them, and never does a singer reach 
a point at which scales can be discarded. My favorite 
warming-up exereise is the Great Scale; that is a slow 
progression both upwards and downwards exploring 
every tone on sustained whole notes. I can’t think nf 
anything more beneficial for reflecting one’s tone 
strengths and weaknesses. I go through the scale on 



all vowel sounds prefaced by the consonant M (Mah, 
Mee, Mo, Mou, and so forth) and I work my way up 
and down by fourths, repeating the final tone as the 
beginning, or attack, of the next group of four tones. 

I find this helpful in firming the attack— especially in 
the upper register. The value of thLs exercise lies in 
the fact that, while it Is comparatively simple to end 
on a high note, or even to progress through high 
tones, it's a far more delicate matter to attack on a 
high tone. Spacing the scale by fourths and using the 
Highest tone as the springboard Into the next group 
gives you ample opportunity to perfect a high attack. 

Develop Sight Reading 

“I wonder, though, If there isn't too much of a tend- 
ency to believe that good singing begins and ends with 
technical vocal work! My five years in professional 
singing have taught me that you can't make a bigger 
mistake than to imagine you've nothing more to do 
than to make the tones come out. A perfect, natural 
voice, perfectly schooled (if there were such a thing), 
would find it impossible to get ahead in public work 
unless it were fortified by sound musicianship and a 
flexible ability to adapt that musicianship to all kinds 
of needs. The ambitious young singer needs more than 
average familiarity with types and kinds and 'schools’ 
of music; she needs at least a basic knowledge of 
theory and orchestration. She needs languages. She 
needs to know how to adapt herself to sing with others. 
Most of all, perhaps, she needs to read music fluently. 

“The best recipe for learning to become a fluent 
sight reader is, quite simply, to read at sight! All y° u 
can. Some people seem to be born with an ability to 
read at sight. Maybe it's only seem; maybe they’ve just 
been reading more and longer! I feel sure that m> 
own ability to read at sight grows directly out of the 
fact that I have been reading — and I mean reading, 
new songs, new parts, new scores, new music in The 
Etude— ever since I was first taken into my mother's 
choir, at the age of five. Reading is something that 
can t be ‘faked’; you simply have to demonstrate abil- 
ity. And the best way to strengthen such ability is by 
regular, earnest practice in reading' music that is en- 
tirely new to you. Picking up the notes of a song y° u 
know by ear and watching the printed line fit the 
melody-line in your mind isn’t at all the same thing- 
Practice reading on unfamiliar music— and practice it 
every day! 

Another simple step toward self-advancement is 
group, or ensemble singing. Not only does this broaden 
one musically’ but it also does something to your powers 
alance and control. One of the experiences I l°° k 
orward to with keen pleasure (Continued on Page 714 > 


The Revival of the English Carol 

de (J3rant 

T HE CHRISTMAS season of 1947 will again re- 
tell the story of the Nativity with numerous 
carols, some medieval, some_ modern and others 
that are in point of time still quite new. Services in 
various churches and radio programs, as well as choral 
concerts, will vie with one another in variety and ef- 
fort in this yearly revival of the carol treasury asso- 
ciated with Christmas throughout the centuries. Yet 
with all this mood of rejoicing, one has to search dili- 
gently for those few who realize that the present status 
of the carol is the result of more than a half century of 
intensive effort in hope of a revival. The few men in 
early nineteenth century England who were acquainted 
with some of the old carols, and who aided materially 
in the revival, found little enthusiasm outside of a 
chosen circle. In the mid-seventeenth century the carol 
experienced such a period of decadence that few of the 
old carols were known or heard and then only in the 
country districts. The story of the yearsthat returned 
the carol to its former prominence contains many facts 
of interest for the general reader and especially for 
those to whom the carol is a vital part of the yearly 
Christmas celebration. 

The fact that psalm singing dominated the choral 
part of the church services is only one circumstance 
that brought about this condition. Puritan England 
sought to lessen, if not do away with the Christmas 
festivities and religious celebration. From 1641 onward 
the decline is easily observed. An ordinance, the first, 
prohibiting the performance of Christmas plays' was 
issued in 1642. On Christmas Day 1643, feeling in the 
matter was more tense and although the shops were 
opened for business, they were soon closed for fear of 
some disturbance. The following year brought a peculiar 
circumstance, for Christmas Day fell on the last 
Wednesday of the month, a day set aside for fasting. 
In spite of the significance of the day, the shops, none- 
theless, were ordered opened and the fast observed as 
on any other prescribed occasion. In 1647, Christmas, as 
well as other holidays for that matter, was abolished, 
and in 1652 Parliament decreed against any observance. 
There was some opposition among the people, and 
pamphlets and broadsides appeared in criticism of the 
restrictions. Nevertheless the Christmas tradition of 
the centuries was seriously affected and as far as the 
carol was concerned practically forgotten. The Restora- 
tion did little to revive the old spirit, for the accent 
was mostly on the festal carol, and the religious carol 
under such conditions could hardly regain its former 

Carols During Puritan Period 

In the Puritan period the carol literally went under- 
ground. The little that remained of its former self was 
kept alive only by the yearly publication of broadsides 
circulated in the country districts. In time the num- 
ber of these broadsides published yearly was gradually 
reduced so that a nineteenth century critic cites this 
as a strong piece of evidence pointing to a total de- 
cline. These broadsides seldom contained melodies but 
the tunes were passed on by tradition, the sheets help- 
ing to aid the remembrance of the texts which could 
be more readily forgotten. 

The revival began shortly after 1820, and in the half 
century that followed there were many periods when 
little progress was made because the objectives tended 
to retard rather than advance the return of the old 
carols. From among those whose names are outstand- 
ing in the revival those of Davis Gilbert, William 
Sandys, William Husk, and John Stainer offer some 
of the most interesting sidelights along the road back 
to a living carol literature. The movement took two 
directions, a popular one which concerned itself chiefly 
with making available the small number of carols 
readily obtainable; the other, the searching work of 
scholars, which progressed slowly but in time grew to 
large and noteworthy collections. In spite of this long 
period of research newly published studies on the 
carol often present a version of an old carol that seem- 
ingly has not appeared before. The task of neither of 
these groups was an easy one, for the early collections 
show evidences of unrewarded effort. The melodies 
were known principally by tradition or word of mouth. 
This was one of the most serious obstacles to their 
promulgation. Fortunately many of them were at last 
consigned to print. 

The illustration accompanying this article is from an 

See Matt. chap. ii. verse 1 1. 


This cut was made from a damaged example in tho 
New York Public Library labeled “Glad Tidings to 
All People: A Christmas Song." On each side of the 
picture were quotations from The Scriptures, and 
thereafter followed ten stanzas of the carol. 

early broadcast sheet (13 x 8 inches) . This was fol- 
lowed by a ten stanza carol, “Glad Tidings to All Peo- 
ple; A CHRISTMAS SONG.” The carol, in these days 
of world confusion, seems strangely prophetic and por- 
tentous. Here are three of the ten stanzas. 

To us this holy child is born! 

For us this son was given, 

To save from sinking down to hell, 

And raise our souls to heaven: 

O then, to earth’s remotest bounds 
Let the glad news be driven; 

For ’tis tidings of comfort and joy. 

Oh, Britain! let thy favour’d sons 
With grateful reverence bend, 

And a loud shout of ardent praise 
Through all thy coasts extend; 

For in the midst of thee. He reigns, 

Whose kingdom ne’er shall end. . 

These are tidings of comfort and joy. 

Then all the nations of the world 
The Saviour shall adore! 

The Gentiles He shall fully bless, 

The Jews he shall restore, 

And all shall join in loudest songs 
To praise him evermore. 

Oh, what tidings of comfort and joy! 


We might also mention a third group, one of less 
importance in modern collections, the publication of 
new carols. Many, if not most of them, had little ap- 
peal and were soon dropped by the wayside. These new 
examples in general turned to the current hymn forms 
rather than the old carol style with burden and a few 
stanzas. A notable exception to the many new carols 
were two composed by Americans, O Little Town of 
Bethlehem by Philips Brooks, and It Came Upon a 
Midnight Clear by E. H. Sears. Neale’s carols written 
in the mid-nineteenth century are in a slightly differ- 
ent category for they were specifically written to old 
carol tunes. Likewise unsuccessful were those carols 
written to supplant the “ungodly” ballads and the 
older carols. Such were those of the Religious Tract 
Society published in the Christmas Box of 1825 and 
of Parker in 1833. 

Published Collections 

What seems to be the earliest evidence of a revival 
came through the efforts of Davis Gilbert, a resident 
of Cornwall. In 1822 he issued a small collection of a 
dozen carols with tunes which we are told in the sub- 
title “are accompanied by tunes to which they were 
formerly sung in the West of England.” He was at- 
tracted to the carol because it revived the memories 
of a happy boyhood which he hoped to preserve. Davis 
Gilbert was a prominent figure of his day, a member 
of Parliament and a patron of the arts and sciences. 

Among those he sponsored in the scientific field was 
Sir Humphrey Davy whom he succeeded as president 
of the Royal Society. In 1820 Gilbert was elected a 
member of the Society of Antiquaries, a society founded 
many years before in London, and revived in 1771. His 
election was possibly an indirect reason for the pub- 
lication of this, his first carol collection. 

Fortunately the 1822 preface gives us some impor- 
tant information concerning the contemporary Christ- 
mas celebrations in the West of England. After noting 
the custom in Catholic countries, the observance of 
a vigil and a fast followed by Midnight Mass, he con- 
tinues, “shadows of these customs were ’til very lately 
preserved in Protestant West England. The day of 
Christmas Eve was passed in an ordinary manner, but 
at seven or eight o’clock in the evening, cakes were 
drawn hot from the oven in every house and the sing- 
ing of carols continued late into the night.” This was 
supplemented by the church service on Christmas day 
during which “carols took the place of psalms in all 
churches especially at the afternoon services, the whole 
congregation joining in.” 

Of Ancient Lineage 

Gilbert published a second edition of the collection 
the following year. He felt that the original edition 
had had a sufficiently good welcome to warrant a new 
edition. Besides he was able now to bring the original 
twelve carols to twenty, an addition of considerable 
importance when the carols available were so very 
limited in number. The tunes for the original twelve 
were largely modal which bespeaks their ancient lin- 
eage. With the second edition Gilbert was not so for- 
tunate, for the preface informs us that he had “not 
succeeded in his best endeavors to get more of the 
ancient tunes.” In spite of this fruitless search there 
is one exception, for a notation on one of them in- 
forms us that he was able to add one at the last mo- 
ment which “was sent to the editor from Yorkshire 
since the preceding carols went to press.” This was 
Byrom’s Christians, Awake, ( Continued on Page 726) 



usic / and •'Culture' 


A A 

What Gives a Violin Tone? 

hij ^ J- ranch 

SbraL EJlaJ 

I T IS my pleasure to play upon about one hundred 
violins a month, always in quest of the most in- 
tangible quality a violin possesses— tone. And by 
the glint I notice in a player’s eye when he picks up 
a violin which really suits his tone-ear, I believe that 
the subject of violin tone has been treated entirely too 
scientifically. It is not scientific at all. Any good violin 
should and can have a good tone; that is, if the owner 
is willing to go through a patient process of learning 
how to have his type of tone transplanted into his 
instrument. Of course it should be stated that the 
violin must be a good violin. If poor violins had tone 
there would have been no need for Stradivari, Guar- 
neri, and all of their followers to strive so hard to make 
a few pieces of wood sing like an angel, play like an 
organ, or respond to the most delicate bow stroke. Now 
hold your breath. I have played on many Strads that 
did not have a good tone! 

I know one Strad that needs a particular brand and 
gauge of aluminum A string (wound on gut) to make 
it sound at all— that is, so all the strings respond with 
equal tone quality. Other fine instruments sound like 
brass trumpets with the same type of A string. And 
before all of the secrets are explained, let me state 
that tone is largely a matter of the proper balance 
among (a) bridge, (b) bass bar, (c) type and gauge of 
strings, (d) sound post adjustment— plus a few more 
little tricks I shall try to explain. 

A. flat model violin needs a bass bar of greater ten- 
sion than a high model instrument; if the bass bar is 
“right” you have a good D and G string tone. But alas, 
many times the A and E then are weak. The post ad- 
justment can help a lot, to say nothing of the thickness 
of the post, the type of wood of which it is made, and 
so forth, but the most important accessories are, per- 
haps, a proper bridge and a correct set of strings! 

I have seen professional players with Amatis, Strads, 
Bergonzis, and on down to the lesser makes, spend 
hours trying various brands and gauges of strings on 
their violins, merely to get a proper balance. Once a 
good bridge has been adjusted, a player can experi- 
ment for many months on various combinations of 
Strings before he strikes the perfect balance for his 
tone-sense. I often try a dozen G strings of the same 
brand and gauge before one sings out with the other 
strings, because strings of the same make and gauge 
often are as different in response as day and night. 
I’ll skip the tedious chore of finding the proper gauge. 
That takes many months of trial and error— and don’t 
for a moment think that many fine soloists spend 
their time merely playing. They spend hours trying to 
find just the right string, or set of strings! 

A Serious Handicap 

Without trying to exaggerate, I can say that nine 
out of ten violins I examine have improperly fitted 
bridges. I have watched talented pupils struggle on 
violins that Kreisler couldn’t play upon with much 
effect, so bad were the bridge adjustments. The same 
goes for sound post and other minor adjustments (such 
as the proper distance between fingerboard and string 
at the nut) . A folder of matches can help a lot here. 
If the cardboard fits snugly under the strings at the 
nut (near peg box), that part of the adjustment is 
about right. 

With a knowledge that a general statement cannot 
be given, it is usually safe, however, if the strings are 
at these’ distances above the end of the fingerboard 
near the bridge (I am taking these measurements from 
a bridge just made by Mr. Heifetz’ favorite bridge 


If love for violins can be inherited, the author feels his life- 
time affection for the instrument came from his grandfather, 
who used to entertain him, as a small boy, with old Civil War 
tunes scraped on an instrument that later was willed to him. 
Sharing the universal hope that the inherited violin was no 
less than a Strad, the boy was shocked and hurt to find an 
expert appraisal tagging the instrument as a five dollar old 
German "factory fiddle." From that moment the subject 
became one for research and study, and at the age of fifteen, 
the boy was collecting and dealing in violins. Now, many 
years later, he can look back on a great number of beautiful 
and rare violins that have passed through his hands — always 
as a collector first, until the sheer economic weight of carry- 
ing such a costly load always necessitated some liquidation. 
Hence "collector-dealers" are born, and through them hun- 
dreds of others are started on the rewarding road of rare 
violin collection and appreciation. 

Mr. Ballard is author of the recent book, "The Appreciation 
Of Rare Violins," which has found its way into many university 
and musical college libraries, and has received critical praise 
from many connoisseurs of the instrument. —Editor's Note 

maker). G, 3/16"; D, 3/16"; A, 5/32"; E, 1/8" These 
measurements are made from the base of the finger- 
board to the top of the string. If your violin is so ad 
justed, you can’t blame the bridge for a bad tone' But 
ninety per cent of the violins I have examined have 
not had this adjustment— some of them have had 
bridges either so Tow or so high that it was impossible 
to expect any satisfactory tone from the instruments 
The matter of a bass bar must be left to an expert 
repairman: the subject is too involved to explain 

whether or not your violin needs a new bass bar. Gen 
Trally speaking, it is an accepted rule (subject to ex'- 
ceptions) that a bass bar should be renewed every 
twenty years. 

The matter of strings is easy— simply experiment- 
and all the trouble and expense are worth while if 
finally you settle upon a perfect combination 0 f 
strings that give your violin the vibrant, singing qual . 
itv every player wants. I have tried as many as fifty 
different combinations of strings to find a perfect or 
nearly perfect, set. It was worth it, I assure you. 

The business of adjusting a sound post is a matter 
to be attended to entirely by a professional repair man 
A few rules may help you decide, however, if y 0U r p ost 
is in the wrong place. Generally speaking, a high model 
violin sounds at its best with the post about a quarter 
of an inch behind the right (E string) leg. A medium 
or flat model instrument sounds best with the post 
about one-eighth inch behind the right leg. Naturally, 
the post must fit both at the top and bottom, and 
should be straight. In most violins, the measurement 
from just inside the nut to the bridge should be within 
an eighth of an inch (depending on size of violin) of 
the standard string length of thirteen inches. 

The impression should not be given that any violin, 
if properly adjusted, will have the tone you desire. 
These hints are designed to show how the best possible 
tone can be produced from any given instrument; but, 
alas, many violins, even very fine ones, are forever 
destined to have an unpleasant tone. The reasons for 
this are many, but mainly they can be explained by 
pointing out that the quality and grain of the wood 
have a great deal to do with the fundamental sound of 
any string instrument. 

Selecting the Wood 

Many violins with wood of beautiful grain have an 
unpleasant sound, even if the basic quality and age of 
the wood are proper. Tills was widely understood by 
the finest old makers, who most often selected wood 
without regard to its eye-appeal, and once a spruce or 
pine tree was found with tonally good wood, the old 
makers stuck to it regardless of knots, Irregular grain 
or sap marks, and often patched pieces together to 
make the top come out full size, rather than use a 
whole piece which they felt would not produce as good 
a sound. Wood for the backs (maple most often) shows 
a wide variety of grains, some with plain (downright 
homely!) appearance, others with gorgeous flames that 
set the eye aflutter. Sometimes the fine makers were 
lucky enough to have wood that both looked handsome 
and vibrated properly for good tone. Many of them, 
Grancino in particluar, stuck mostly to plain, unspec- 
tacular appearing wood that, nevertheless, gave the in- 
struments a wonderful tone quality. One of the most 
important parts of the back, tonally speaking, is the 
part directly under the soundpost. If the grain is 
wrong at this point, often the violin is forever doomed 
so far as a beautiful, responsive tone is concerned. 

Many violins in our collection are ugly ducklings 
judged solely by their appearance, yet they sound de- 
lightful; some of the most handsome ones remind us 
of dressed up dudes whose inner character is faulty 
... so as a rule we feel that "handsome is as handsome 
does’’ when it comes to a violin! 

The matter of various measurements, and the 
amount they may vary from normal, are dealt with at 
length in our book, “The Appreciation Of Rare Violins, 
and while tone is often affected by measurements, t e 
general subject' has more to do with ease of playing 
(and holding) a violin than with the title of this piece. 
But so many factors go into the net result of satisfying 
tone, it is well to mention some of them. 

Importance of Varnish 

Of course, varnish is a prime factor, but it should be 
made forcefully clear that no remedy for a poor vio in 
tone can be found in a new coat of varnish. The sin o 
sins is to allow anybody to fool around with the orig 
inal varnish on a fine violin, other than the usual 
minute “touching up" which is common. The old var 
nish in a fine instrument is part and parcel of t 
whole, and its quality greatly influences tone. Phymr® 
adjustments .can be changed, but one can’t basics y 
change what the maker put into his work, and it 1 
foolish to try it. A few very expert and experience^ 
makers can slightly regraduate some violins and Jf?, 
Prove their tone, but the (.Continued on Page 71 




The Joyous Mendelssohn 

( 1809 - 1847 ) 

An Anniversary Sketch of the Brilliant Career of Felix Mendelssohn 


I N THE MIDDLE ■ of the eighteenth century a 
desperately poor German- Jewish youth, Moses 
Mendelssohn, born in Dessau in 1729, made his 
way to Berlin. By dint of his remarkably beneficent 
mind, he influenced German thought for generations. 
In 1754 he made the acquaintance of Lessing, who, 
through him, was inspired to write his greatest drama, 
"Nathan the Wise.” The period was a remarkable one. 
Frederick the Great was the music loving, quasi- 
despotic ruler of Germany. Anti-Semitism was ram- 
pant, but the beautiful spirit of tolerance of Moses 
Mendelssohn developed a new attitude toward Judaism. 
In fact, his books did much to mold all European 
thought in his day. He came to be known as "The 
German Socrates.” 

Moses’ second son, Abraham Mendelssohn (177b- 
1835) , married Leah Salomon, whose father was a rich 
Berlin banker. The story runs that Leah’s brother 
had worked for a wealthy and kindly restaurateur in 
Paris, who, upon his death, left the young Salomon 
an interest in his business, with the hope that his 
protege would become a Christian. This he did, and 
Leah likewise joined the Protestant faith, as did her 
husband, Abraham. The family name then became 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, after the former proprietor 
of the garden belonging to them. This name was 
adopted to distinguish the family from relatives who 
continued in Judaism. Abraham entered the banking 
business and became wealthy. Leah was a lady of 
great charm, many gifts, and rare culture. She played 
the piano and sang with unusual skill. She was an 
unusual linguist, speaking English, French, Italian, 

and German with equal fluency. It was said that her 
favorite poet was Homer, whose works she read in 
the original Greek. Her water colors and her drawings 
were highly esteemed. The Mendelssohns, who were 
married in 1804, had four children: Fanny Cacilie 
(1805) , Jakob Ludwig Felix (1809) , Rebecka (1811) , 
and Paul (1813). All of them, like their parents, were 
extremely talented musically. Rebecka was said to 
have sung exquisitely, and Paul was a very able ama- 
teur ’cellist. It was to Fanny and Felix, however, that 
God gave His rarest gifts. Both were precocious pian- 
ists and composers, with spiritual springs of pure, 
flowing melody. In fact, two of the Hefte (books) of 
the "Songs Without Words,” originally published under 
Felix’ name, were really the creations of Fanny who, 
through modesty and the tradition that women should 
not be engaged in public life, gladly and proudly con- 
sented to this arrangement. 

An Amazing Record 

Felix Mendelssohn was born in Hamburg, February 3, 
1809, and died in Leipzig in 1847. Think of it! Thirty- 
eight years was his complete span of life and in this 
period he wrote one hundred and twenty published 
opus numbers, many of these including several com- 
positions, symphonies, sonatas, oratorios, concertos, 
theater music, chamber music, part songs, instru- 
mental solos and songs; probably over three hundred 
works, many of which were still in manuscript in the 
State Library at Berlin. Let us hope they were not 
destroyed by the maniac Nazis who, in their wild anti- 
Semitic rage, pulled down the ( Continued on Page 725) 

From a painting by Edouard Magnus in 1836. 


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Music / in / the / Home jr?;-;;. 

V* Of of • '•*'•%• * 

New Recorded Treasures 
For Music Lovers 

j-^eter ^Jducjli Indeed 

Bach: Mass in B minor; RCA Victor Chorale; Anne 
McKnight; June Gardner; Lydia Summers; Lucius 
Metz; Paul Matthen; RCA Victor Orchestra, conducted 
by Robert Shaw. Victor sets 1145/1146. 

Bach: Sacred Arias; Carol Brice and Columbia 
Concert Orchestra, conducted by Daniel Saidenberg. 
Columbia set X-283. 

Bach: Brandenburg Concerto; Boyd Neel Orchestra. 
Decca EDA-27. 

Bach: Suite No. 2'in B minor; Pittsburgh Symphony 
Orchestra, conducted by Fritz Reiner. Columbia set 

Bach-Stokowski : Toccata and Fugue; Leopold Sto- 
kowski and his Orchestra. Victor disc 11-9653. 

Bach: Concerto for Two Violins in D minor; Jascha 
Heifetz (playing both parts) with RCA Victor Chamber 
Orchestra, conducted by Franz Waxman. Victor set 

Perhaps no work of Bach’s has been desired in a new 
recording more than the B minor Mass, which stands 
so high in the literature of music, that it is not inaptly 
comparable to the high dominating tower of a great 
cathedral. The new recorded version is a model of 
clarity; the shaping of the performance by the gifted 
young conductor is marked by intelligence although 
not by great depth of feeling. The soloists are good 
on the whole, but they do not efface memories of the 
singers in the earlier set. The performance has an 
intimacy characteristic of the manner in which the 
Mass must have been heard in Bach’s time and this 
makes its projection from the records in the home 
more enjoyable than the diffused older recording. If 
one feels there is more to be got from the score — a 
greater depth of anguish, for example, in the Crucifixus 
— the performance taken as a whole offers nonetheless 
a thrilling experience. 

The Negro contralto, Carol Brice, sings/ with dignity 
and admirable musicianship the Qui sedes and Agnus 
Dei from the B minor Mass, and Et exultavit and 
Esurientes from the Magnificat. A lack of tonal variety 
leaves her arias from the Mass less impressive than 
those from the Magnificat. The accompanying orches- 
tra is excellently handled in the reproduction, but the 
playing is almost too straightforward for its own good. 

Tire English conductor Boyd Neel gives a good per- 
formance of the “Brandenburg” Concerto No. 2, but 
one which lacks the subtlety of line and expression 
of the now famous version by the Busch Chamber 
Players. It is the unnamed pianist in the Neel set 
which lets him down; he lacks the refinement of style 
of Rudolf Serkin. 

Reiner’s performance of the B minor Suite is forth- 
right, less given to excesses than the recent Kousse- 
vitzky one. Had the conductor had a more persuasive 
flutist the performance would have been more appre- 
ciable, but Mr. Caratelli is lacking in, the essential 
fluidity and grace which the flute part often demands 
— that is in the Polonaise. 

Stokowski, using a smaller orchestra than in his 
previous records of the Toccata and Fugue in D minor, 
gives a cleaner detailed rendition, but the new version 
lacks the rich beauty of tone that is found in his older 
Philadelphia Orchestra one. 

No musician has set for himself a more exacting 
task than Heifetz did in playing two parts of a double 
concerto in a recording. One can appreciate the me- 
chanical and musical preparation that went into this 


recording, but listening to the finished product one 
feels the lack of true spontaneity, and comparing it 
with the performances of Menuhin and Enesco (victoi 
set 932), and of Busch and Magnus (Columbia set 
X-253), one becomes aware of an inner spiritual 
freedom in the latter performances which is missing 
from this new one. 

Mozart: Symphony In D major, K. 133; Edvard 
Fendler and the Vox Chamber Orchestra, Vox set 171. 

Mozart: Concerto No. 4 in E-flat, K. 495 (for Horn) , 
Dennis Brain and the Halle Orchestra, Columbia set 

Mozart: Quintet for Clarinet and Strings, K. 581; 
Reginald Kell and the Philharmonia Quartet. Colum- 
bia set 702. 

The Mozart symphony, written in his sixteenth year, 
is buoyant and carefree and a delight from start to 
finish. Fendler’s performance is alert and deftly 
nuanced; the recording on vinylite is good. . . . The 
horn concerto was written twelve years later for a 
famous horn player of the day. It is a striking example 
of Mozart’s ability to handle an instrument which was 
fairly new to the orchestra at that time, and reveals 
his ability to be both ingenious and diverting. The 
English horn player, Dennis Brain, gives a fine per- 
formance .... The Clarinet Quintet belongs to Mozart’s 
last years and remains one of his greatest chamber 
compositions, wherein lies endless pleasure. The per- 
formance of Kell and the Philharmonia Quartet is as 
near perfection as the record can give, and supersedes 
all previous issues. 

Beethoven: Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61; 
Joseph Szigeti and the Philharmonic-Symphony 
Orchestra of N. Y„ conducted by Bruno Walter. Colum- 
bia set 697. 

Beethoven: Piano Concerto No. 2 in B-flat, Op. 19; 
William Kapell and the NBC Symphony Orchestra, 
conducted by Vladimir Gloschmann. Victor set 1132. 

Handel (arranged Casadesus): Concerto in B minor; 
William Primrose (viola) and RCA Victor Orchestra', 
conducted by Frieder Weissmann. Victor set 1131. 

Fifteen years ago in England, Szigeti and Walter 
recorded the violin concerto of Beethoven. To many 
that set was the preferred performance of this work 
on records, for Szigeti played with an artistic intensity 
of purpose that commanded the highest respect and 
Walter gave him an eloquent and radiant powered 
orchestral background. This new version reveals the 
two artists delving even deeper into the music and with 
the aid of superbly realistic reproduction adding 
nuances of line and color that were not heard in the 
older set. . . . The Second Piano Concerto of Beethoven 
his first work in the form but published later has 
never held our interest like the other four concertos 
And despite his pianistic prowess, Mr. Kapell does 
not seem to us the ideal performer for this opus-his 
performance lacks the essential lightness and relaxa 
tion the music demands .... The Handel Concerto 
has been claimed a fraud by several authorities but 
whether by Handel or one of his contemporaries i 
proves to be a pleasant and diverting score, and a 




welcome addition to the repertoire of a violinist. Prim- 
rose played the work for Columbia ten y< u' . ago and 
to our ears the older recording has an intimacy of 
charm that the bolder reproduction of the new set 
does not convey. 

Wagner: Siegfried Idyll; A Fault Overture; The 
Ride of the Valkyriee; Arturo Toscanini and the NBC 
Symphony Orchestra. Victor set 1135. 

Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 5 in E minor, Op. 64; 
The Philharmonia Orchestra, conducted by Paul 
Kletzki. Columbia set 701. 

As an interpreter of Wagner. Toscanini has few if 
any rivals. His newest version of the Siegfried Idyll 
is a rarely poetic revelation of this lovely tone poem; 
his “Faust” Overture exploits the broodln.: despair of 
the learned doctor with a searching Intensity of spirit; 
and his Ride o/ the Valkyries packs a thrill as only 
Toscanini can achieve. 

The Polish conductor, Paul Kletzki, proves himself 
one of the foremost interpreters of Tchaikovsky’s 
music on record. Not only is this a pert rmance in 
which intelligence and technical resourcefulness are 
well exhibited, but the extended range recording adds 
immeasurably to one's enjoyment of the event. 

Liszt: Piano Concerto No. 1 E-flat; Artur Rubin- 
stein and the Dallas Symphony Orchestra, conducted 
by Antal Dorati. Victor set 1144. 

Britten: The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, 
Op. 34; Sir Malcolm Sargent and the Liverpool Phil- 
harmonic Orchestra. Columbia set 703. 

Liszt’s famous “Triangle" Concerto is handsomely 
served by this extended range recording in which the 
tinkling instrument so hard to record in the past comes 
through with almost too much realism. Rubinstein 
with his sheer splendor of mighty pianism " identifies 
imself with this music as tellingly as any other pianist 
on records to date. 

Britten’s work, based on a theme from Purcell, is 
one of the most ingenious and diverting scores ever 
evised to exploit the various instrumental sections of 
an orchestra. It should become a popular favorite with 
old and young alike. 

Dukas: The Sorcerer s Apprentice; Eugene Ormandy 
and the Philadelphia Orchestra. Columbia disc 12584-D. 

Borodin: Prince Igor— Overture; Berlioz: The Tro- 
jans Royal Hunt and Storm and Trojan March; Sir 
nomas Beecham and the London Philharmonic 
Orchestra. Victor set 1141. 

Pavane pour infante defunte; The Boston 
v v” pho " y Orchestra, conducted by Serge Koussevitzky. 
victor disc 11 - 9729 . 

CMs^c ^ alses nobles et sentimentales; Daphne et 
PierrpM^', 6 ^ 0 ‘ Debussy- Ravel : Sarabande; 

re Monteux and the San (Continued on Page 721) 


Critics and Encyclopedists 

“The Encyclopedists as Critics of Music.” By Alfred 
Richard Oliver. Pages, 227. Price, . $3.00. Publisher, 
Columbia University Press. 

The great French “Encyclopedia,” which from 1751 
to 1765, was the work of a group of French scholars 
and scientists headed by Denis Diderot 1713-1784), 
the famous “Pan-to-phile.” Diderot, a political pris- 
oner was released to work with d’Alembert, Voltaire, 
Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Bouffon upon this work 
for twenty years. The result was a series of thirty-six 
volumes which, coming at the height of “the period of 
enlightenment” were not merely a triumph for French 
scholarship, but a great impetus for learning m the 
world While the famous Diderot “Encyclopedia” was, 
in a sense, founded upon a two volume work of Ephraim 
Chambers, first published in England in 1728, what we 
have known as the Chambers’ “Cyclopedia” is really 
the publication of Robert and William Chambers o 
Edinburgh, a ten volume work compiled by Robert 
Chambers and Robert Carruthers, and first published 
from 1859 to 1868. The “Encyclopedia Britannica” was 
first issued in six penny numbers in 1768, during the 
reign of George III. At that time it is estimated that 
those acquainted with the English tongue numbered 
14 000 000 Now it is estimated that far over 200,000,000 
are familiar with English. With the spread of the 
tongue; the growth of the “Encyclopedia Britannica’ 
has been tremendous. Nevertheless, Diderot’s great 
achievement ranks as one of the foremost achieve- 
ments of scholarship in the world. 

Note that the appearance of Diderot’s “Encyclo- 
pedia” (1751) was. parallel with one of the greatest 
epochs of music development in Europe. Bach and 
Handel were then sixty-six years old. Haydn was 
nineteen, but Mozart was not yet born. However, before 
the completion of the thirty-six volumes in 1780, 
Mozart was twenty-four years of age and, because of 
his precocity, was already one of the leading musicians 
of Europe. Together with the unusual musical develop- 
ment in England, France, and Italy, there was already 
in the world a large number of masterpieces upon 
which critical opinions might be desired. For instance, 
in 1780 Gluck, who had written all of his great works, 
already had retired from Paris to Vienna, a broken, 
paralyzed, old man. 

Therefore, Diderot’s “Encyclopedia” is made from 
contemporary material and the opinions of the critics 
engaged, such as Diderot, Rameau, d Alembert, and 
others are priceless, particularly in the field of the 
opera, the ballet, and instrumental music. 

The book was not completed without bitter quarrels 
among the critics, who had many contrasting opinions. 
Much of the interest in Mr. Oliver’s book has to do 
with these hard-fought disputes, which make striking 
pictures of musical affairs at that pre-revolutionary 
period in the colorful days of Louis XV. 

Columbia University Press seems to be having a 
kind of carnival upon the French Encyclopedists, as 
it has also recently issued a volume, “The Censoring 
of Diderot’s Encyclopedie and the Re-Established 
Text,” by Douglas H. Gordon and Norman L. Torrey. 

Perhaps it is a good thing now and then to with- 
draw from the picture for nonce and forget about 
Russia, Indonesia, Greece, the Atomic Bomb, and the 
high price of butter and eggs, while we find amuse- 
ment in discovering what other men tore their hair 
about almost two centuries ago! 

Pen Portraits of Famous Musicians 

“The Other Side of the Record.” By Charles O Connell. 
Pages, 332. Price, $3.50. Publisher, Alfred A. Knopf. 
In the world of records, “records that defy the tooth 
of time,” the names of two Americans s.tand out with 
unusual prominence. The first is that of the late Calvin 
Childs of the Victor Talking Machine Company, 
through whose persistent and adroit diplomacy the 
artistic interpretations of many foremost singers and 
musicians of yesterday were captured for the discs. 
Mr. Childs was a forceful and amiable business man, 
but in no sense a professional musician. The second 
is Mr. Charles O’Connell, a very able musician and an 
indefatigable worker in the field of recorded music. 
He was born in Chicopee, Massachusetts, in 1900, and 
was educated at Holy Cross College. After several 
years spent as an organist and as a music critic, he 

Music / in / the / Home ^^ 

The Etude Music Lover’s Bookshelf 

Any book here 
reviewed may 
be secured from 
MAGAZINE at the 
price given on 
receipt of 
cash or check. 

/jij Jjd. Ifl/jereditli Cdadi 


became associated with the RCA-Victor Corporation, 
remaining with that corporation until 1944, when he 
left to take the position of Music Director of Columbia 
Masterworks, from which position he resigned last 
spring. Meanwhile, he had entered the field of con- 
ducting and has led most of the major symphony 
orchestras in our country. He also wrote “The Victor 
Book of the Symphony” and was Editor of “The Victor 
Book of the Opera.” 

With these rich experiences he has met many of the 
most famous musicians of his time. This has given 
him intimate opportunities for observation of these 
personalities on “the other side of the record.” His pen 
portraits are done with distinction and make one of 
the most interesting and entertaining musical books 
to appear since the end of the war. On his easel he has 
captured Grace Moore, Lily Pons, Jose Iturbi, Eugene 

Photo ly R. B. Dooner 


Ormandy, Lauritz Melchior, Arturo Toscanini, Kirsten 
Flagstad, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Arthur Fiedler, Helen 
Traubel, Jascha Heifetz, Pierre Monteux, Artur Rubin- 
stein, Serge Koussevitzky, Leopold Stokowski, and a 
number of distinguished organists. 

Mr. O’Connell has managed to keep his equilibrium 
as a steady-going American, despite the fact that he 
has had to brush up against many explosive and 
eccentric artists. Living most of his life with a highly 
sophisticated night-club group, with many who have 
been neurotic, he has picked up a great number of 
lurid colorful incidents which he has set down with 


an evident attempt to be truthful without rancor 
Some of the portraits are etched with acid— as they 
should be. But opinion is not necessarily truth. We can 
all err in judgment. However, Mr. O’Connell probably 
has had more opportunities for polishing his judgment 
than any man in his field. He calls a spade a spade, 
and not “a blunt instrument used in excavating. 
Many of the personal studies are like anatomical dis- 
sections and sometimes Mr. O’ConnelTs scalpels turn 
into cleavers. Nor does he fail now and then to put m 
the raw and vulgar back-stage jargon, which will 
shock some simple souls who have placed their art on 
too high a pedestal to be human. Behind it all there 
is a kind of monastic" scholarship and discernment 
which will gratify the thousands who get their music, 
“off the record.” Unquestionably, the book will cause 
a sensation in musiedom. 

It will make an excellent gift book for your musical 
friends, come Christmas. 

Juvenile Musical Biographies 

“Giants in Music.” By Louise Schawe. Pages, 80. Price, 
$2.50. Publisher, Keyboard Publishing Company. 

A series of eight biographies of great masters, de- 
signed for children. The tales are told with justifiable 
poetic license and there are eight full page illustrations. 

Musical Panorama 

“The Road to Music.” By Nicolas Slonimsky. Pages, 
178. Price, $2.75. Publisher, Dodd, Mead & Company. 
Perhaps you have gone a long way on the road to 
music. Perhaps you are only starting, or perhaps you 
are content to listen to music from records or from the 
air, but would like a few of the details of the art to 
help you enjoy what you hear. In any case, Mr. Slon- 
imsky’s very human, entertaining, and interesting book 
will prove a worth-while investment. The author, 
looked upon by some as a modernist, isolated in his 
own sophistry, gets down to earth in a way which will 
delight you. The articles appeared in part upon The 
Children’s Page of the “Christian Science Monitor.” 
Although portions Of the chapters of the book are 
eligible to the juvenile mind, most of the work will be 
found very informative and helpful by many adults. 

The book is chock-full of musical bits such as: “The 
great Italian conductor, Toscanini, has a way of show- 
ing crescendo and diminuendo by spreading out the 
index and the middle fingers of his hands, touching 
them by the fingertips to imitate the actual signs for 
crescendo and diminuendo as they are .written in the 

The whole work has a refreshing sense of humor, 
wit, and common sense, which make it most readable. 
* * * 

“ Speaking of music for the people, you must go 
where people are if you would lead them where you 
think they should be.’’ 

— Peter W. Dykema 



.^'i^Mitsiej ctnd •'Culture 0&J& 

' ■ ♦* I’j^r ^ sjpw? >iv»' 

The Pianist’s Page 

fornia plan, which is still m the experimental sta 
It has followed the sensible policy of not setting sights 
too high at first. By now, however it ought to be able 
to stiffen the requirements which, I think, are not 
exacting enough in the fields of actual performance 

and pupil demonstration. 

The California Plan claims to have formulated a 
“progressive aid in achieving a superior standard of 

Foot Notes On Standards 

“One, two, three, four! Every day 
Just as loud as I can play; 

, Just as hard as I can hit, * 

For Daddy pays a lot for it.” 

Yes, “read it and weep” . . . This doggerel, appropri- 
ately illustrated, occupied the entire first page of a 
recently presented pupils’ recital program. The best 
we can say is that it is an ill-advised bid for a laugh. 
Most of us will see it not only as a depressing exhibi- 
tion of low standards but also as a dangerous thought- 
groove to set up in the minds of students and parents. 
Yet, the musical numbers listed on the program gave 
evidence of taste. How account for such apparent 

Once again, let us forever be on our guard to squelch 
t>he silly notion that piano playing is a hard hitting 
affair. The simplest way to “put this across” is to 
insinuate in the pupils’ consciousness right from the 
beginning that making music at the piano consists of 
drawing out the tones from the instrument — caressing, 
brushing, plucking — rather than clawing, hammering,’ 
or chopping the keys. The best means of achieving 
this is through constant contact with the key tops 
before they are played. The pianists who play most 
accurately, relaxedly, brilliantly, and beautifully, em- 
ploy the close “feel” method. Teachers and instruction 
books must discard unsound terms like attack, strike, 
drop, hammer action, wrist stroke, pressure, and 
resistance, for these are the perpetrators and per- 
letuators of the appalling pianistic habits so widely 
racticed today. . . . Terminology must be watched as 
.sharply as actual teaching methods. 

Higher Aims 

By contrast, Anne Linderud of Long Prairie, Minne- 
sota, sends in her seasonal announcement. At the bot- 
tom of a small, unobstrusive page she states simply 
that she teaches piano to children and adults. Two- 
thirds of the page is given over to this credo: 

Through Music, the child expresses his inmost 
self. Learns self discipline through employing con- 
centration and patience. 

Learns one right use of leisure. 

Gives pleasure to himself and others. 

Soothes and refines his spirit. 

Widens his sympathies. 

Creates music of his own making. 

Attains poise through the simultaneous develop- 
ment of body, mind, and spirit. 

Is better able to participate in the social and com- 
munal life of his environment. 


k 2b, Guy Water 

Noted Pianist and 
Music Educator 

Orchids to Miss Linderud! To formulate such a credo 
and to implement it by top-notch teaching methods, 
means that she has set high standards for herself as 
well as for her students. 

From Brooklyn— But Not A Dodger! 

Mr. Hyman Krongard hailing from Brooklyn (a 
borough which may well boast of its excellent teacheis) 
is by no means a dodger on the subject of standaids! 
He takes this department Ip task for approving state- 
ments and policies of teachers whose letters have been 
quoted on these pages. His own letter is so provocative 
that I would like to quote it in toto; but this being 
impossible, let’s examine a few of its thoughtful para- 

“I, too, cannot resist the temptation to ‘stick my oar 
in’ on the subject of standards. ... A certain per- 
centage of pupils takes lessons from people who are 
not teachers; an enormous amount of instruction is 
given by unqualified persons. All talk of improving 
standards can be little more than talk so long as this 
monstrous evil exists. Imagine what standards of 
medicine would be if every pre-med or pharmacy 
student decided to set himself up in business as a 
doctor! To blame the parents for this, as some cor- 
respondents do, is to negate reality. It is up to the 
music teaching profession, by working for the licensing 
and accrediting of its qualified members, to give the 
parents the protection they sorely need.” 

Mr. Krongard knows of course that in several local- 
ities of the United States the music teachers associ- 
ations have been experimenting variously with volun- 
tary accrediting plans. Official licensing of music 
teachers has been tried but without success. Several 
unofficial state accrediting projects have been “going 
strong” for some time. 

The California Plan 

Take California, for example. For five years its 
enterprising Music Teachers’ Association has been 
busy evolving a “California Plan” of awarding Col- 
league’s, Child Specialist’s, and Fellow’s degrees to its 
members who win the Association’s recognition of 
accomplishment and progress in pedagogy, perform- 
ance, practical teaching, research, and composition. A 
Colleague is required to complete specified study in Ear 
Training, Harmony, Musical Form, History of Music 
Educational Psychology, Normal Methods, and Applied 
Music. Candidates must also produce evidence of suc- 
cessful teaching experience through the presentation 
of pupils for demonstration. 

fully. If you think those requirements tough you ough 
to scan the test for the Fellow’s degree! 

A Credentials Consultant evaluates' all teacher: 
applications . . . list of music studied dates an 
length of study, private, college, and conservator 
teachers, teaching experience, public recitals, researc 
studies, and participation in community music 
projects. An examination committee of three member 
and outstanding specialists are appointed annually t 
administer the examinations. Requirements for th 
tests are. set forth in detail and are strictly enforcer 
California teachers are working like beavers to n f 
the tests. Those who fall by the wayside are encourage 
and stimulated to try again. g 

Other Associations might well investigate this Cali 


Johnnie's Pleasure 

Concerning the statement by M.A.S. •'September 
Etude) that she is fed up with the parents who chant- 
“I don’t want Johnnie to be a concert pianist or a 
professional musician. I want him to know just enough 
to play for his own enjoymertt," Mr. Krongard writes: 

“It has been my experience that nineteen out of 
twenty parents come to a teacher with this attitude. 
Yet what a naive and wise attitude that is! As if any- 
thing that John’s parents want will affect' his musical 
development to any serious extent! As if anything 
that they want will influence a good teacher! If the 
teacher sees in Johnnie the makings of a fine artist, 
he will develop these to the best of his ability. Johnnie 
will become an artist if he can and wants to in spite of 
his parents’ modest desires. But when one contemplates 
the work, the time, the talent, the perseverance, the 
passion, the entire development of the child Into a 
fine performer, who can deny that parents display an 
instinctive wisdom In their approach to their child's 
music study?" 

Who wants to make professional-, of his pupils? 
Certainly no teacher worthy of the name. . . . But I’d 
like to know how many teachers are in the enviable 
position of being able to resist parental dictation. . . . 
What of the majority who so often despair at that 
“Johnnie’s enjoyment" declaration? They know only 
too well that enforcing the necessary discipline and 
drill in musical and technical fundamentals will result 
in Johnnie and his Ma searching out a teacher who 
will sponsor the false fun notion. 

Isn’t it high time for American parents to realize 
the simple fact that any real musical enjoyment is 
work-fun? If they want the children to enjoy playing 
the piano, Mother and Dad must take their share of 
the responsibility, which is to keep the youngsters’ 
noses to the grindstone — pardon! hands to the piano 
keys, for four or five years. During this period they 
must praise, Inspire, stimulate, require regular practice 
and lessons, listen to results, offer rewards if necessary 
— anything to help the teacher lay a solid foundation 
for the youngsters’ musical enjoyment This is the 
duty of every parent. 

After these years the kids must decide for them- 
selves whether they want to continue or not. It's up to 
them then. If parents grit their teeth and put through 
such a policy, thousands of them will be spared those 
bitter, accusing reproaches of Johnnie and Mary, now- 
aged eighteen. (We know them all by heart!) “Why 
didn’t you force me to practice and keep up my 
lessons?” “Oh Gee! I’d give anything to be able to 
play well, but it's too late now." 

Johnny Tires of His Pieces 

Mr. Krongard also disapproves of teachers who 
object w-hen parents say, "Johnnie must never be kept 
on a piece so long that he tires of it.” He says: “The 
truth of the matter is that one does tire of a piece. 
Does the writer believe that an extraordinary amount 
of time spent on a composition will produce perfection 
or broader musicianship? Perfection can only come 
when the student desires to achieve it. . . . Technic, 
scales, fundamentals form the only gateway through 
which goodness in performance is possible. But I think 
we delude ourselves that a heavy dose of scales and 
exercises of good old fashioned drill for all will improve 
standards. Even if this does not drive the beginner 
from music study it will lie useless until an inner love 
for perfection and beauty employs them. What good 
teacher withholds pure technic, scales, arpeggios, and 
other studies, when he feels that these are appropriate 
for his student? Is not one of the distinguishing marks 
° the superior teacher that sense of timing, together 
w * th an understanding of each student before him, 
which decides whether to give technic ‘raw,’ ‘sugar 
coat’ it, or omit it altogether? The tools in themselves 
will help very little; we must ( Continued on Page 71 3 > 


Musician, Don’t 

Worry About Your Heart! 

L, WaU 


. 3 'chiveish 

weisheimer , 


your°supp e os 0 ed heart distress may be some harmless disturbance. Meanwh.le, Dr.^g.vesjea^sur^ 
ing information. 

H EART TROUBLE was never rare with mu- 
sicians. The activity of the musician which 
leads to so much strain upon the whole ner- 
vous system, is also a severe strain to the heart as 
well' as to the blood vessels. Richard Wagner during 
his last few years suffered from a heart ailment from 
which he died in Venice. There is a theory that his 
malady came from attacks of angina pectoris, though 
this is not certain. Gustav Mahler had a chronic heart 
affection which was connected with septicaemia caus- 
ing his early death (fifty-one years) . It was discovered 
by sheer coincidence. The doctor went to call upon 
Alma Mahler, Gustav Mahler’s wife. Mahler, thinking 
to make a cheerful diversion, said, “Come along, doc- 
tor, wouldn’t you like to examine me, too?” The 
doctor did so. He got up looking very serious and said, 
“Well, you’ve no cause to be proud of a heart like 
that” — in that cheery tone which doctors often adopt 
after diagnosing a dangerous disease. Professor Kovacs 
confirmed the verdict of the general practitioner, and 
the whole life attitude of Mahler was changed with 
depressing suddenness. Alfred Roller, one of the closest 
collaborators of Mahler, said: “The verdict came as no 
surprise to me. I noticed during the Lohengrin re- 
hearsals, when he was putting more life into the 
chorus, motioning for them to come forward and 
waving for them to go back again, he stopped to get 
his breath and involuntarily clutched at his heart.” 
This difficulty in getting breath is definitely character- 
istic of heart trouble of any kind. 

At many times in history musicians have suffered 
silently from a weak or ailing heart without letting 
the audience know how they felt. Leopold Auer tells 
us about the unhappy life of the violinist-composer, 
Wieniawski. The violinist, during his last concert pe- 
riod, was at times obliged to stop playing in the midst 
of a composition, owing to a sudden seizure of heart 
trouble. For the time being, it absolutely deprived him 
of breath. After a few moments of rest he would go 
on playing, but much enfeebled by the attack he had 
suffered. At one of these concerts in Berlin Joseph 
Joachim who happened to be in the concert hall, 
saved the situation by playing, at Wieniawski’s request, 
Bach’s Chaconne and several other numbers, while 
Wieniawski had a heart attack. 

Marvelous Reserve Powers of the Heart 

But musicians should not worry unnecessarily about 
their hearts. Few people realize how strong and efficient 
an organ the heart is. Second by second, minute by min- 
ute, year in and year out, the heart forces the blood 
through the body by an incessant series of rhythmical 
contractions — at a rate of about seventy a minute — 
more than 100,000 a day! The velocity of the whole 
circulation is less than half a minute; the blood which 
is expelled at this moment from the right ventricle 
and then from the left ventricle, has returned to the 
heart in twenty-five to thirty seconds. The arteries are 
small elastic pumps which, by their steady contrac- 
tions and dilatations, support the machinery of the 
heart in its vital task of moving the blood-stream. 
Still the heart has to do the main part of the job. 

The reserves and substitutes with which the heart 
fights disease, are most powerful. A sick heart shows 
its adaptability to new needs. One part of it is diseased 
and does not work at the normal rate— so the other 
part has to be more efficient, since “the show must go 
on.” After the structural change has been completed, 
that is, when the left ventricle has undergone marked 
hypertrophy (that is a morbid enlargement of the 
heart muscle) the heart is “compensated” it car- 
ries on an adequate circulation just like a normal 
heart— though the reserve capacities of the heart are 
not unlimited. A more careful method of living will 
take care that no exaggerated work will be exacted 
from the compensated heart, which might cause de- 

compensation of the heart and failure of its power. 
Even after heart disease is well established, its func- 
tion may remain adequate for all but the most strenu- 
ous activities. The average heart patient may look 
forward to many years of an active, useful life. 

We know of other musicians who suffered from 
heart disease. The Russian ' composer, Mily Balakiref, 
died painlessly from a disease of the heart in 1910. 
The same disease took away the composer, Sergei 
Taneief, in 1915. 

Is Heart Disease Increasing Among Musicians? 

A conductor whom I know as a reliable observer, 
told me recently that according to his findings, more 
conductors and active musicians he knew, had died 
from heart disease in recent years than had been the 
case in former years. He had listed them, and the list 
was of remarkable length. This observation undoubt- 
edly is correct. But the main diseases of musicians as 
well as of other parts of the population have under- 
gone a decisive change in their frequency. Not long 
ago, tuberculosis of the lungs (of which Carl Maria 
von Weber died) was considered a disease common 
to musicians. Musicians today, however, though the 
American composer, Charles T. Griffes died from it 
have much fewer cases of tuberculosis, in concordance 
with the downward trend of this disease in the gen- 
eral population. Today diseases of the heart and the 
arteries are public health enemy Number One, and 
physicians who have musicians among their patients 
agree that heart ailments are more frequent among 
them as well. 

This, however, is in itself no sign of bad health — 
just the contrary, paradoxical as it may sound. The 
main reason is the extension of the average human 
life. Heart troubles are mostly connected with older 
age, and the longer people live, the more they have 
the chance of getting a heart ailment. The average 
length of life today is about sixty-six years in the 
United States— an all time high in any country of 
the world. The expectation of life at birth has in- 
creased almost nineteen years in the past thirty-five 

Musicians who in former times would have died 
young, possibly of some epidemic disease such as 
typhoid fever (as did Schubert) or of tuberculosis 
(as did Chopin and Weber) , today are protected from 
these diseases. They may reach the age of fifty or 
sixty years, and at this age are naturally more likely 
to contract heart disease or arteriosclerosis than at 
an earlier age. There is no sign that the frequency 
of heart ailments in younger years has increased. In- 
fections, such as tonsillitis (sore throat) , or rheumatic 
fever, are one of the causes of heart ailments in 
younger years. Gustav Mahler through nearly all his 
life suffered from ever-recurring attacks of feverish 
sore throat. 

In the United States about four million people 
have some form of heart disease. Dr. F. N. Wilson, of 
the University of Michigan, states that just as many 
persons are distressed by imaginary heart disease— 
although actually their hearts are healthy and strong. 

They doctor with all sorts of fads and nostrums for 
their hearts. As a result, they suffer from an imagi- 
nary disease and consequently deep fits of depression. 

Often an exact checkup will show, that no real 
physical defect exists — neither of the heart nor the 
arteries, nor of the “blood pressure” which today has 
acquired a high and not deserved unpopularity. After 
that exact checkup has been made, after all the tests 
have shown a healthy heart, the patient can be 
assured: “Stop worrying about your heart; learn to 
forget about your smaller ailments, and your troubles 
are over.” The famous soprano Lilli Lehmann, once 
lay in bed for three weeks, almost without stirring. 
She was worried by the fear that she had heart 
trouble. She did not dare to undertake any kind of 
exertion. But both her family physician and her per- 
sonal friend, Dr. Schweninger (famous doctor of the 
German Chancellor Bismarck), found her heart per- 
fectly sound. The tumultous beating of her heart was 
only a result of mental over-exertion. Under proper 
care Lilli Lehmann became healthy again and even 
in her later years could endure exertions as a singer 
from which the youngest and strongest might shrink. 

‘Diseases of the Coronary Arteries 

Another reason for the increase of heart troubles is 
the striking increase of diseases of the coronary 
arteries. The function of these arteries (which like a 
“corona,” (a crown) encircle the base of the heart) 
is to feed the heart itself— to keep it in efficient shape 
and function. It is highly probable that these ail- 
ments have not increased at all in contrast to the 
plain statistical figures; only the medical diagnosis 
of heart affections has become more exact, and today 
we call disease of the coronary arteries what in for- 
mer decades was called stroke, apoplexy, or heart 
muscle affection. 

Still, coronary disease among musicians is no inven- 
tion of recent times. Rimsky-Korsakoff, the Russian 
composer, suffered from severe attacks of angina pec- 
toris — a painful heart condition which is caused by 
changes in the coronary arteries. Accustomed to con- 
tinuous activity, he could not be induced to rest after 
a severe attack of angina pectoris; a second attack 
followed five days later in which he died, after a 
•severe thunderstorm in August, 1908. The words, 
“angina pectoris,” means literally “strangling of the 
breast.” The coronary arteries may become hardened 
and fragile, or blood clots and thrombi may form in 
them which in turn interrupt the blood stream (coro- 
nary occlusion). Another composer who was suffering 
from angina pectoris, was Alexander Serof. He died 
suddenly in 1871, probably due to a coronary occlusion. 

The sudden death of Georges Bizet, too, was prob- 
ably provoked by coronary occlusion. He died sud- 
denly, only thirty-seven years of age, exactly three 
months after the first night of “Carmen.” At the 
time the causes of death given were “purulent resorp- 
tion,” an embolism -or a quinsy— another proof that 
the diagnosis “Coronary Disease” is of recent date 
and that the same thing had another name in former 




Tusie • and St 

Coronary disease is called by American medical 
authors the “disease of the intelligentsia” because 
members of the “intelligentsia” are much more af- 
fected than manual workers such as farmers or 
laborers. The musicians belong to this sphere of in- 
telligentsia. Nervous strain and worry are said to be 
connected with the cause of the disease — hard-work- 
ing, high-tension, dynamic people who have no oppor- 
tunity or no desire to get out of the daily grind into 
the great outdoors and real relaxation. There is an- 
other theory which connects coronary artery disease 
not with worry but with faulty cholesterol metabolism. 
It might be an excessive intake of food rich in choles- 
terol — or a defect of the body’s metabolism to use even 
small amounts of cholesterol-containing substances. 
This theory tells of deposits of fat in the elastic tis- 
sues of the arteries which in turn leads to an in- 
filtration with calcium salts, a premature arterio- 

preacher’s sermon with “Amen! Amen. P ^ 
Lawd!” as he lit into every sort of sir .from 

to shooting craps. Then the pars ” ?^ ed aloud “Hold 
snuff-dipping, and Aunt fedtf “dai ^ starte d 
on, parson. You’s done stopped pr 

in meddlin’!” . ,, nf or- 

One idea has not changed in the treatmen i 
ganic heart disease and will never be consu lered a 
“meddlin’ ” by the patient: that of the lmm ^ 

of digitalis preparations for the treat “ en ,. is 

ailment. The need of heart patients for g 
characteristically expressed m a word of 
Mahler. Bruno Walter, the conductor, once tried to 
describe to Mahler the future house and garden « 
which they had talked in Vienna m former days. 
Mahler was silent for a while and then said. That 
would be quite nice, but, as a matter of fa t, 

now but one desire-to take enough digitalis to sup. 
port my heart.” 

Plenty of sleep is a requisite for everybody who has 
heart trouble of any kind. Members of dance bands 
which work nightly into the wee small hours should 
see to it that they secure adequate rest to compensate 
for the great strain under which they must work. 

A warning that “some doctors make unnecessary 
invalids of patients who have minor heart ailments,” 
was presented recently by Dr. William D. Stroud 
famed cardiologist of the University of Pennsylvania! 
It has been found that people with heart disease can 
well continue in occupations which require moderate 
physical activity but at somewhat shorter than aver- 
age working hours per week. Certainly life can be 
much happier if such activities are not restricted un- 
less urgently necessary. 

The Town that Lost its Christmas 


There are extensive statistics showing coronary 
artery disease as the “disease of the intelligentsia.” 
However, quite recently some doubt has come to this 
opinion. A study by J. A. Hindle and S. A. Levine came 
to the conclusion that there was no difference in the 
average age of death from coronary disease among 
physicians (who supposedly were the most frequent 
victims of coronary disease) and the general popula- 
tion. Only the incidence of smokers was greater. 

People with a coronary condition should watch 
their everyday life, they should avoid, particularly, 
hurry and tension— things which not always are easily 
accomplished by a musician. Recent medical publica- 
tions show that, after a patient has recovered from 
an attack of coronary disease, the frequency of com- 
plications was the same whether he resumed work 
or not. 

A hardening of the blood vessels is called arterio- 
sclerosis — and one of its complications is the burst- 
ing of a blood vessel, either in the heart or in the 
brain (cerebral hemorrhage) . Bursting of a blood ves- 
sel is popularly called a stroke, or apoplexy. Bach 
and Gluck died after a stroke. Hector Berlioz probably 
died from the same cause, and so did Verdi. Anton 
Dvorak, who for many years was suffering from pro- 
gressive arteriosclerosis, died suddenly after a stroke. 
Alexander Borodin, only fifty-four years of age, died 
within a few seconds of a burst aneurysma— a dilata- 
tion of the aortic artery, the main blood vessel of the 
body. Anton Rubinstein, pianist and composer, died 
suddenly during one night in his villa at Peterhof of 
an aneurysma. 

A musician suffering from unusual heart beats or 
■ who is short of breath after a slight exercise, would 
be wise to secure expert advice. It is unwise to spend 
sleepless nights listening to one’s pulse and heart- 
beat. It is useless to measure the blood pressure three 
times a day— all that, just adds to your nervousness 
and lessens the joy of living — without being of prac- 
tical value. We also must not forget that the process 
of growing old brings about a change of the endocrine 
glands — blood, tissues, and organs undergo important 
alterations under their influence. 

Real, organic heart diseases are always likely to be 
fewer than cases of imaginary heart trouble. But here, 
too, quietness and equanimity are best. All heart 
patients find out soon enough the kind of life which 
is appropriate for them — and the things they have to 
avoid in order to escape heart trouble and unpleasant 
sensations. They may even be allowed reasonable 
exertion which proves agreeable to them. Nothing 
will reassure them more convincingly. 

There must be no exhaustion, and no indiscriminate 
indulgence in alcoholic drinks and nicotine. Modern 
therapists are convinced of the excellent value of 
moderate doses of alcohol in coronary artery disease. 
Alcohol is probably the best coronary dilatator, and 
this means a protective influence in cases in which 
alcohol is well tolerated. Your physician should de- 
termine this. However, tobacco is decidedly not good 
for such conditions. The advice not to smoke is taken 
with equanimity by many patients, while it seems 
nearly insufferable to others. Dr. Clarence A. Mills 
mentioned an anecdote from the “Progressive 
Farmer”: Aunt Becky was punctuating the Negro 


This article embodies a great moral, faith- 
strengthening lesson. Read it to the end and you 
will be impressed. The triumph of the Spirit of 
Christmas over all obstacles is the most signifi- 
cant fact of modern civilization. 

F OR TRUE stories of Christmas with a surprise 
ending, one of the strangest on record is that 
which an enterprising researcher has dug out of 
the crowded file on Germany. 

The story does not concern the present so much as 
the past. Back around the turn of the century, many 
persons went out of their way to pass Christmas in a 
little town in Bavaria. Visitors and townspeople all 
were thrilled because of the “Manger Plays” that were 
presented there every Yuletide by the poor children of 
the community. 

Chief credit for their presentation belonged to one 
man. His name was Alois Pleischmann. As organist and 
choir director of the parish church, he held a high 
place in the community. He was a distinguished 
musician, he knew the works of the great masters, and 
as he had many friends, he had every reason to con- 
sider himself well off. Nevertheless, he was not content. 
He longed to do something for the poor children of the 
town. Whenever Christmas drew near, he was troubled 
by a sad memory of his own boyhood — and that made 
his heart go out to all unhappy youngsters. 

It seems that on a certain Christmas Day, years 
before, his parents lived in a forlorn home on a narrow 
street in this same town. As night came on and a snow- 
storm whirled outside, the boy stood by the window. 
The falling flakes were not so thick but what he could 
plainly see all the fun that was going on in the house 
across the way. Silhouetted against the window shades 
was a tall Christmas tree with candles galore. The 
curly heads of boys and girls went bobbing by the 
window in a merry Yuletide game. Watching all that 
happiness in which he had no part, young Alois felt a 
lump rise in his throat, and scalding tears flooded his 
eyes. On that day when all the world was making 
merry, his home was empty of cheer. His parents were 
very poor, so they had no way of celebrating. 

It was this memory of a lonely Christmas long ago 
that led Alois Fleischmann to try to bring happiness 
to the poor children of the town through his "Manger 
Plays.” They were started because of his interest and 
within a comparatively short time, they became 
famous all over the world. 

Herr Fleischmann’s first job was to get together 
troupe of youthful actors and singers. After he ha 
assembled the poor children of the town, he told ther 
what he had in mind. The youngsters expressed thei 
wholehearted enthusiasm, and offered to cooperate. 

The first season it was decided to put on a drama 
tization of a fairy tale. Fleischmann wrote out th 
parts and then began rehearsals. Somehow thos 
eager children grasped what their kindly directc 
sought, and reflecting the happy glow of his spirit th 


first “Manger Play” turned out a great success. It was 
a triumph for all concerned. 

As the second Christmas approached, Fleischmann 
felt more ambitious. He had a troupe of fully trained 
young actors, and he was ready to undertake a more 
difficult work. When the time came for the rehearsals 
to start, he was the center of a happy throng. The 
boys and girls listened closely as Herr Fleischmann 
read over an old miracle play from the sixteenth cen- 
tury. On a piano he played the special core he had 
composed, into which was woven that loveliest of 
Christmas carols, Silent Night. 

By this time the entire community \va interested. 
The first “Manger Play” had proved so delightful that 
everybody looked forward to the second bill. The news 
spread of the beautiful miracle play, and when the 
performance took place, people came from a large 
city not many miles away. The work of the young 
actors made a deep Impression on all. and so it came 
about that all Germany began to hear of the little 
town and its unique Christinas drama. 

When another Yule season arrived, Herr Fleisch- 
mann had many eager volunteers to assist In his 
undertaking for the poor children. From the artist 
colony in the nearby city, noted painters came to help 
with the costumes and scenery. A Christmas legend 
by Selma Lagerlof was chosen for the third “Manger 
Play,” and a well known poet of Germany offered to 
fnake the dramatization for the young actors. One 
and all seemed glad to Join In making those poor 
youngsters happier at Christmas. 

It goes without saying that the third presentation 
was the greatest triumph of all. Alois Fleischmann 
and his troupe covered themselves with glory. On the 
nights the "Manger Play” was given, special trains 
were run from the big city to accommodate the crowds. 
The road from the station up the hill to the village 
auditorium- was black with people. The attendance 
was so great that late-comers had to be turned away 
for lack of room. 

uu> vmibtmao 

he probably never dreamed that the "Manger Plays” 
would become so widely known. But everywhere people 
seemed interested in what he was doing for the poor 
children of his town. The fame of the "Manger Plays” 
even spread to America, and when tourists planned 
a trip abroad, many arranged so they could be in the 
little village for the Yuletide. 

Perhaps the “Manger Plays” would still be playing 
th ® re today if it had not been for Adolf Hitler. But 
w en the Fuhrer” came to power in Germany, they 
were broken off abruptly. The songs and laughter of 
chfidren would have sounded out of place along with 
the evil he brought to the same community, 
you really want to know the name of this town? 
.f ™ as Da chau. Hitler’s pest hole of the system 
nritvf 6 y thousands and thousands were put to death 
r^iv,n n . he f rd of cruel ty- Hitler and Hitlerism art 
nmhflated, but Christmas is still with us, and the 
Hays ” wil1 come again and again, through 
of fht ntun f s ’ Dachau and to all the little childrer 
diahnU„ W | 0rld ; The spir 't of the Master survives — the 
a spirit of Hitler has been vanquished. 


. , -I iif simplest answer to the question of voice 
r I 'care has to do with keeping the voice in good 
X condition. That means keeping the entire physi- 
cal organism in healthy condition, for the voice is, 
after all, a part of the human body. That, m turn, 
means living a natural, simple life, free of excesses of 
anv kind-excesses of coddling and medication as well 
as of excesses of what is called ‘good times. Each 
singer must decide for himself, of course, the exact 
things he must do to keep in sound good health. For 
mV self I avoid drinking, smoking, worry, and tension. 
I do a lot of good, hard farm work, take plenty of ex- 
ercise, and build up good resistance. So much for keep- 
ing the voice in good condition— but it must be got 
into good condition in the first place, if it is to be 
kept there, and if one hopes to do good, solid singing 

work with it. / 

“This special, ‘vocal’ care of the voice, then (as apart 
from the important general care) , might be summed 
un this way: do as much singing as possible in as 
correct a way as possible. The singer who adheres to 
that will find no trouble in caring for his voice! But- 
it isn’t easy. What constitutes the correct way of sing- 


ing? Thus, the care of the voice roots into the day-by 
day, tone-by-tone use of the voice. To put it differently, 
one cannot produce one’s tones defectively and hope to 
‘care for’ the voice by some outside system of health 
rules or safety devices! 

Natural Singing Tone 

“We are often told that the great difficulty in learn- 
ing correct production habits is that we can t see our 
instrument (as the pianist can), and must therefore 
guide ourselves by the feel of the thing. That is true 
enough, as far as it goes. But — we must also know 
for what feelings to aim. Intensive vocalization, over 
a period of years, can build up a muscular resistance 
that actually prohibits feeling. That, in fact, is what 
generally happens to the young singer who is badly 
taught. His tones may feel right enough at the time— 
chiefly because he knows no other means of emission 
with which to compare them. But later, when he gets 
into professional work and uses his voice for a great 
deal more than private practicing and studio lessons, 
he suddenly finds that something is wrong. It doesn t 
feel so good any more! Then he wonders where the 
trouble lies, and finds himself compelled to muddle 
through that sorry business of probing for, and trying 
to correct errors that should have been corrected in 
the first place. Thus, the mere matter of ‘feeling’ right 
while one sings (especially if one is young and inex- 
perienced) is not quite enough. To avoid later con- 
fusion, one must know what to feel for ! 

“The first feeling, then, is, or should be, one of com- 
plete and natural freedom. Correct singing is as simple 

Music/- and - Study 

Intelligent Care of the Singing Voice 

A Conference with 

Robert lAJeecle 

Prominent American Baritone 


, , , . R-Uim-.p and immediately began calling attention to himself vocally. Mr. 

Robert Weede was born in Baltimor , , . | ;fe i(| ; ng shrieking, and yelling, an activity 

Weede says that he spent the first n piahbors but which qave him the foundation of his now 

which might have been hard on at an early age. He 

renowned lung ^ScenT b^riionrtice began to develop while he was in high 

sang as soon as he could talic. 9 , • i | aYS _ Reared on a farm near Baltimore, young 

school, where he took part in c r rom j,; s | unc h hour to practice piano. Hardly 

Weede vocalized during spare • of awards an d prizes which finally brought him to the atten- 

out of high school, he began to studied voice under Adelin Fermm at the 

his Metropolitan Opera debut as Tonio in P a 9 liac 
one of the most accomplished and distinguished i ar 
farm, his horses, and dogs. Professionally, he divides 
radio in which medium his broadcasts as regular star 
him the enthusiastic admiration of millions of listen 
for readers of The Etude his views on what constitutes 

as talking (provided, of course, that fine talks cor- 
rectly') ‘ indeed, the two are exactly the same, with 
the sole exception that in singing, the process of 
vocal emission is intensified. Good singing, then, is 
(and must feel like) free, prolonged natural sounds 
sustained by a greater amount of breath than is used 
in speaking. Anything else— anything forced, or faked, 
or ‘made’ — is wrong, and tends ultimately to harm the 
voice. Indeed, a great deal of harm can be. caused by 
the kind of admiration that causes imitation! We have 
all observed what happens when a successful singer 
displays some highly individual technique of breathing, 
articulation, and so forth. Immediately, earnest young 
students begin imitating that special effect— imitating, 
that Is to say, the way the effect looks from the out- 
side without in the least understanding why the artist 
developed it in the first place, or what particular bene- 
fit he derives from it. Thus, every few years, we go 
through periods of fads and ‘crazes’— each of which 
may have been helpful to the artist who developed it 
for his own needs, but which has no meaning at a 
'when it is adopted imitatively, parrot-fashion, as a 
cure-all for vocal defects in general. The test should 
be. not, am I doing what Signor X does? but, does my 
singing feel as natural as my ordinary talking? 

“The singing tone should be as natural and effort- 
less as the speaking tone, sustained by a breath that 
is able to do the work of sustaining. Such a breath 
comes primarily from the diaphragm, a membrane 
which grows horizontally. Applying the simplest laws of 
physics, let us consider the action of the breath on the 
diaphragm. If the pressure is in a downward direction, 
the diaphragm is extended; the space above it is cor- 
respondingly enlarged, and there is more room in the 
lungs, lung capacity in other words, is increased when 
the pressure on the diaphragm is in a downward (and 
outward) direction. When the push, or pressure, is in 
an upward (and inward) direction, exactly the opposite 


ci.” Less than four years later, he was recognized as 
tists of our day. Mr. Weede’s hobbies are music, his 
his time among concert work, opera, recordings, and 
of the "Great Moments in Music" hour have won 
ers. In the following conference, Mr. Weede outlines 
the proper care of the voice. — Editor s Note. 

occurs: the muscles are tightened, tension is induced, 
and the lung capacity is restricted. This latter result 
occurs whenever a singer takes a stance, forces his 
abdomen in, and ‘goes through motions’ to ‘support’ 
his tone. What does he think he can support it on, if he 
tenses himself and restricts his lung expansion? Real 
tone support is given when the breath is so drawn that 
the diaphragm is pushed down. You can readily find 
out when this happens — the abdomen comes out as the 
breath is drawn in. That is the natural breath. It re- 
mains, as a true support, until it is released through 
tone. And the tone so supported will be a good one! It 
will project itself outward, in front, and will not give 
the forced, hollow sound of being inhaled. 

“The next great point of importance is the develop- 
ment of even range. Often singers will tell you that 
they experience no trouble in the middle voice, but that 
they do have difficulties in the upper or lower registers. 
Depend upon it, such a diagnosis is usually wrong! If 
trouble occurs in the extremes of range, something is 
wrong with the middle register, because the upper and 
lower tones develop from the middle. 

"Covering" a Tone 

“One of the difficulties surrounding proper develop- 
ment of the upper voice is the misunderstanding of 
that much-abused term ‘cover.’ Far too often, what is 
meant to be a cover for the tone, turns out to be a 
choke! A better, clearer term would be simply a pro- 
tection for tone. To achieve proper focus of vocalization 
for upper tones, vowels should be gradually darkened 
as the tones ascend — but such darkening should never 
change the direction of emission of the tone. When 
the one correct place, or focus, for that particular tone 
has been found, through vocalization, then application 
and the conscious use of that position will follow' natu- 
rally, with but little change in the pronunciation of the 
vowel. For example, there is no reason for singing my 
as though it were written mooi — not only is there no 
reason for doing it; it is harmful to get into the habit! 
The first step is to experiment in finding the exact 
focus of vocalization for the tone. When that has been 
found, it may be necessary to darken the straight ii 
sound a bit, to protect the ( Continued on Page 714) 







RoJand W: jbunLm, 3 A. Q. 0. 

Dean, College of Music, University of Colorado 

a T THE TURN of the present century the organ was used almost exclusively in 
Z\ the church and regarded as the ideal, and indeed, the only appropriate instru- 
ment for church music. At that time there were two outstanding defects which 
were source's of constant worry to the player. These were the uncertainty of adequate 
and steady wind supply to guarantee proper tonal results, and a key action so heavy 
as to make performance with most of the stops drawn a herculean feat and for all 
practical purposes one which precluded passage 
work of more than moderate activity. 

To secure prompt and correct speech from or- 
gan pipes it is essential that there be a supply 
of wind which is sufficient and constant in pres- 
sure. From the early device of the common 
bellows was developed a rotary type known as 
the “forge blower.” Above the blower was the 
wind reservoir, equipped with a double set of 
folds expanding when filled with air. At the base 
of this reservoir were holes cut in the boards to 
admit the air from the bellows. A safety valve 
at the top prevented bursting. In the days when 
. the bellows were operated by a man at a pump, 
the maintenance of enough wind to keep the 
reservoir supplied was not too easy, particularly 
when full organ was used. The job was one re- 
quiring the services of a husky man and con- 
tinuous pumping. 

As a young lad my first position as organist 
was in a small Scotch Presbyterian Church in 
suburban Boston. At services my pumper was 
the bald-headed, bewhiskered janitor of declin- 
ing years. He found it almost too much to handle 
this secondary job at services. As a result, there 

DB - r °wland w. 


were many times when the organ groaned 
and sputtered in hymns and organ pieces that 
demanded loud, sustained chords. Experience . 
taught me to limit full organ effects. ThenJ 
too, the old gentleman invariably took a nap 
during the sermon. To awaken him for the 
closing hymn sometimes took a personal con- 
tact, the noisy “bellows signal" being in- 
sufficient to arouse him 
The most common improvement over the 
man-pumped bellows wa the water motor. 
This was quite satisfactory when all went 
well, but these motors were frequently out of 
order, and constant vigilance and checking 
by mechanics were obligatory to make certain 
that the Sunday music would not be organ- 
less. In cold weather a frozen motor might 
mean trouble after the thawing out process. 
It might be recalled, also, that water pres- 
sures were occasionally fluctuating and might 
be inadequate. In those days, substitution of 
a piano for a windless organ was not un- 

The old methods of supplying and storing 
air have been revised, and today the organist 
merely presses a button and an electric motor 
of ample power starts the blowing mechanism. Without becoming technical, it is 
sufficient to say that electricity has completely solved the problem of a sufficient 
supply and correct pressure under all conditions. 

Organ action is the mechanism by means of which the various pipes are permitted 
to speak” when the keys are depressed, subject, of course, to the “.stops" drawn at 
the time. It is, possible to play music with one set of pipes or with the combined use 
of practically all the sets available on the particular instrument. Before electricity 
brought about near perfection, the action which opened the valves permitting the 
pipes to sound was a clumsy affair. “Tracker” action of the past was the only system 



Ktv r 1 \ 

D ' 


-D-<— ■ 



c0 nso 

M. “ 

oi the 

ot<3 an ° 



ways ? rgan ' 11 insisted of a device, constructed in several < 

S' ^rr™° „ 8 t P v,°5 W00d 0r tracker sufficiently to open the valve; 

sets of pipes to be %imdlrt ateVer key Was de P res sed. The choice of the one 
more stops to draw In this w at the disposal of the organist, who chose thi 
of valv^ to bf opened t he T’ ^ m ° re registers in the greater “5 
heaviness of touch The nir| h pressure ot the Anger. Naturally, this result 
much. The old organs, with all stops drawn (Continued on Pc 


•** A. 

Music and ;■ Stud YAd^- 

Chi Va Piano, Va Lontano 

(He Who Goes Slowly, Goes Far) 

!,,j 3dr. Alexander WjcCurdy 

Editor of the Organ Department 

W E PLAY too fast! In this age of fast auto- 
mobiles, speedy planes, new type projectiles 
which travel thousands of miles in no time 
at aU we all get to doing things too fast. Everything 
is becoming streamlined; even the new organs are 
built as trim as anything else these -days. I a «i sure 
that mechanically, they are streamlined to the Nth 
degree compared with organs even forty years ago. 
They just aren’t heavy any more. The type of tone 
which has been developed in the last" few years, mak- 
ing the organ so much more clear, has much to do 
with our playing faster. All of the young people who 
are studying the organ have technic to burn and. can 
rattle off Bach Fugues at the rate of a mile a minute, 
more or less. The organs we play on almost play by 

There has been much discussion recently regarding 
tempo It may be the age in which we live. We hear 
on every side that organists play too fast, particu- 
larly the concert organist and those w'ho play con- 
siderable amounts of music for services and short 
recitals preceding services. I have been guilty of this 
much too often, and have been so chagrined at times 
that I have wished for a hole to crawl into. I try 
and try to overcome it, and I do make some head- 
way, I am glad to say. Some of my friends who do 
much playing say the same thing. We know that 
there are all sorts of things which make one play too 
fast; one might be nervous, something might upset 
one on account of the condition of the particular 
organ, or the acoustics of the building might be dif- 
ferent when one plays his recital in comparison to 
the time he practiced. All manner of things might 
enter into the picture. There are a few simple things 
which we organists can do about it — things which I 
am sure will work because I have tried them and know. 

Varying Conditions 

Some of the really great organists such as Guil- 
mant, Bonnet, Dupre, Courboin, Farnam, and others, 
have had much to say regarding tempo. Bonnet said, 
for example, that the acoustics of the building had 
everything to do with setting the tempo at which to 
play. (It also has much to do with the phrasing.) 
When one practices in a small studio he can play 
rather fast and hear every note. He could go directly 
to a reasonably resonant building and play the same 
number at the same tempo he used in the studio 
and the result would be a mess of the first order. 
One then might take the same number to a still more 
resonant building and find that it would be even 
worse. However, again, if these same buildings 'were 
full of people and the resonance reduced, he might 
be able to use the original tempo as used in the studio. 
We see that there is a real problem in knowing just 
what to do. I shall never forget the feeling that I had 
while practicing in a hall reputed to be an ideal place 
for the organ acoustically, having the time of my 
life practicing. Every note played sounded like a pearl, 
yet when I played the recital, the hall was full of 
people and everything could have been too slow; the 
bloom was taken from the tone of the organ, and 
every tempo was too slow as I had practiced it. How- 
ever, I felt this at once and the fact that I had 
practiced 'slowly had prepared me to use a faster 
tempo. It pays to practice slowly. 

The late Lynwood Farnam used to impress upon 
us constantly the necessity for practicing slowly, and 
when the time came to play in recital to play a little 
slower than we usually might desire to play. There 
is no doubt that one can always keep a steadier tempo 
when one has his music well under control. I do not 
mean that one should be metronomic, but I am sure 
that if we used the metronome much more than we 
do, we would be better off, both from a tempo point 
of view and from the point of view of keeping what 
one plays under control. We do have so many things 
to watch, the stops, the combinations, and all sorts 
of mechanics. There are so many things to take our 
minds from the music, and the music is the main 
thing, is it not? 

I have mentioned often the great organ builder, 
Ernest M. Skinner. He has always been an inspira- 
tion to me. He is over eighty and still going strong. 
He is a great lover of music, is enthusiastic about 
many types of music, and is most enthusiastic about 
the organ providing the organist is musical. He has 
helped me a great deal. He always has tried to make 

his organs beautiful, and then to have them used so 
that they sound always at their best. He goes on at 
great length at times on the “tap dancer” organist. 
He is most critical of organists who simply practice 
day after day on Nun freut euch or some fast move- 
ment of a trio sonata to see how fast and clear it 
can be played. He says there is just no music in it. 
He may be right; we don’t pay enough attention to 
some of the more simple things; we don’t spend nearly 
enough time on them to make them beautiful: 


Frequently in these columns mention has been made 
of the fact that listening to one’s self is so important 
and also listening to others. One may learn from 
anyone if he tries; at least he can learn what not to 
do if he doesn’t learn what to do. We practice so 
much, I fear, and do not listen to the result. In these 
days of home record making and inexpensive ways to 
have records made by professionals, one can hear 
himself accurately. At once the things that he wants 
to clean up are found. Listen to the recordings of 
Schweitzer, Biggs, Dupre, and Weinrich; study them. 

At the beginning of almost # every piece of music 
there is a tempo marking. I wonder how many of us 
pay much attention to it? We would be so much bet- 
ter off if we would take something from the composer. 
It is a fact that even though a composer may specify 
a certain tempo, which in some buildings might not 
be satisfactory, he would not only want the artist to 
use his best judgment in making the necessary ad- 
justment, but would expect him to do so. 

There are practically no indications of tempo from 
Bach himself, but there are tempo markings galore 
from all of the editors of Bach’s works. Certainly we 
can depend upon these great authorities— Straube, 
Widor, Schweitzer, Bonnet, Dupre, Bridge, Higgs, and 
many 'others. Reimenschneider, in his edition of the 
“Orgelbuchlein,” gives tempi by a number of people, 
such as Guilmant and others. They do not always 
agree, of course, and why should they; we certainly 
wouldn’t all like to play in the same style, but surely, 
if one is thoughtful in the slightest degree, he can 
get a tempo which will be perfect for him. One 
should experiment considerably in private and have 
others listen. One should use his metronome con- 
stantly for tempo and for keeping his tempo. 

Flor Peeters, the organist of Malines Cathedral in 
Belgium is in this country touring from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. I have been with him for days in 
Philadelphia and in Princeton. Here is an organist 
who plays all types of music, who plays music, not 
just the organ. I am much impressed with the fact 
that he does not play solely for effect. He does not 
•play so fast that one cannot tell what is going on. 
The fact that he practices at great length on the in- 
strument on which he plays, hours and hours for a 
single recital is most significant. Consequently he gets 
everything out of the music that he wants and really 
becomes familiar with the organ at hand. 

Some years ago Lynwood Farnam, of whom we like 
to speak, was playing a recital in San Francisco. He 
arrived in the city on the day of his recital, around 
eight in the morning. He knew everything he was to 
play perfectly, of course. He went to the hall around 
nine in the morning and at five in the afternoon he 
was still practicing. The recital was truly a great ex- 
perience for everyone who heard it. He said to us 


many times that there is nothing like rest and prac- 

Some of our own fine organists work like this, and 
just to mention one is Catherine Crozier of the East- 
man School of Music in Rochester, New York. Her 
method of practicing every recital number at half 
the tempo or less, two or three times before the con- 
cert, on the particular organ on which she is to play is 
certainly worthy of our consideration. Miss Crozier’s 
recitals always come off in the neatest way and we 
hear music. After all we don’t care about the organ, 
the notes or anything else, it is just music that we 

What Others Say 

Great organ teachers and great piano teachers 
have always recognized the value of slow practice. 
One of the foremost teachers in all musical history 
was the renowned virtuoso, Ferruccio Busoni. Masry 
people do not remember that he was the head teacher 
of pianoforte at Helsingfors, Finland, and also at the 
Moscow Imperial Conservatory, and at the New Eng- 
land Conservatory in Boston. In James Francis 
Cooke’s book of conferences with famous piano virtu- 
osi, “Great Pianists on Pianoforte Playing,” Busoni 
writes of his personal revision of his technic. 

“I remember that when I concluded my term as 
professor of piano at the New England Conservatory 
of Music I was very conscious of certain deficiencies 
in my style. Notwithstanding the fact that I had 
been accepted as a virtuoso in Europe and in America 
and had toured with orchestras such as the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra, I knew better than anyone 
else that there were certain details in my playing 
that I could not afford to neglect. 

“For instance, I knew that my method of playing 
the trill could be greatly improved and I also knew 
that I lacked force and endurance in certain pas- 
sages. Fortunately, although a comparatively young 
man, I was not deceived by the flattery of well- 
meaning, but incapable critics, who were quite will- 
ing to convince me that my playing was as perfect 
as it was possible to make it. Every seeker of artistic 
truth is more widely awake to -his own deficiencies 
than any of his critics could possibly be. 

“In order to rectify the details I have mentioned 
as well as some I have not mentioned, I have come 
to the conclusion that I must devise an entirely new 
technical system. Technical systems are best when 
they are individual. Speaking theoretically, every in- 
dividual needs a different technical system. Every, 
hand, every arm, every set of ten fingers, everybody 
and, what is of greatest importance, every intellect is 
different from every other. I consequently endeavored 
to get down to the basic laws underlying the subject 
of technic and make a system of my own. 

“After much study, I discovered what I believed to 
be the technical cause of my defects and then I re- 
turned to Europe and for two years I devoted myself 
almost exclusively to technical study along the in- 
dividual lines I had devised. To my great delight de- 
tails that always defied me, the rebellious trills, the 
faltering bravura passages, the uneven runs, all came 
into beautiful submission and with them came a new 
delight in playing.” 

Dr. Cooke relates that Busoni was very insistent 
upon slow practice. In the same work the inimitable 
Teresa Carreno recommends: ( Continued on Page 716) 



,\4d& Music /■ ana Study, 


During the eight week summer session this group gave performances of Handel's Messiah ; Brahms Requiem . 
Kodaly's "Te Deum"; Moussorgsky's "Defeat of Sennacherib"; R. Vaughan- Williams Serenade to usic 

Borodin's "Polovetzian Dances." 

“Sing Unto the Lord a New Song” 

“With Trumpets, Timbrels, Strings, and Pipe” 

Ig 1/Ylagnard 


O NE MAY BE sure that the Psalmist was not a 
specialist partial to any one department of 
musical production, but rather that he felt the 
efficacy of all instruments and voices in praising God; 
and, at that, most effectively when in combination. 
William Byrd, the sixteenth century choralist, had gone 
quite far afield when he made the assertion that 
“There is no music whatsoever as comparable to the 
voices of men.” Byrd was, of course, “selling” the chief 
musical idiom of his day— unaccompanied singing. And 
perhaps more specifically he was urging the use of his 
little book of “Songs and Sonnets.” There have been 
many throughout the ages who followed the formula 
of the Psalmist, but during our day (in the opinion of 
the writer) , too many music directors carry the “sales 
talk” of William Byrd into the particular departments 
of musical production, and claim each to possess the 
most complete expression. Would it not be better to 
tolerate, understand, even cherish all idioms for their 
individual value; and, if possible, go so far as the ap- 
preciation and utilization of the entire forces in com- 
bination? If this latter be impossible, one could at least 
have the satisfaction, as expressed by Robert Browning 
in “Cleon,” “Is it nothing that I know them all?” 

A “Golden Age” is truly ours in possessing a heri- 
tage of music that is figuratively as old as the Psalms. 
This overwhelming fund of literature, plus the complex 
instruments invented for its creation and production, 
have forced teachers and directors into a super-spe- 
cialization. The spirit of our times : the factory system, 
the medical clinic, and so forth, are having their 
counterpart in music education. Competition has been 
due, in a great measure, to the emphasis on specialized 
activity. Whatever may be the necessity in business 
and other professions, the writer feels that the art of 
teaching and making music should never be reduced 
to the technique of the assembly line. One is reminded 
sf the “classic” story of the double bass player in the 
Paris Opera, who, upon viewing a performance of 
“Rigoletto” from the audience side (after having 


played twenty years in the orchestra pit) , came forth 
with the startling discovery, “At that spot in the 
quartet where the basses go ‘zum zum,’ the violins go 
‘deedle deedle deedle.’ ” When viewing the choral pro- 
fession we see quite a few “bass players from the Paris 

shall teachers Specialize? 

A few years ago it became apparent that each 
teacher entering the music profession must be compe- 
tent as a specialist in one of the various phases of 
music teaching. The colleges and universities set up 
special curricula to satisfy this demand. “Are you vo- 
cal?” or “Are you instrumental?” have long been stock 
salutations upon meeting others of the profession, as 
if the answer would stamp the individual as being in 
the “proper camp.” Would it not be much better to 
receive the answer, “I am a musician, interestedjn all 
phases of musical production”? This attitude of spe- 
cialization has placed the vocal and instrumental fields 
at opposite ends of the pole, when, ideally, they should 
be embraced as one communal activity. 

The pendulum is swinging to a more advantageous 
point, as has been evidenced by requests for teachers 
in recent months. We are now beginning to expect a 
teacher to be able to participate in both instrumental 
and vocal work. Truly, the major portion of any given 
individual’s time may be spent in one or the other 
fields, but it seems of prime importance that some work 
be done in the opposite (I should say allied) branch 

if ,y, e are t0 realize the best from “music” for our 

' and CHORUS 

Edited by William D. Revelli ' 


“Choral men” shy away from the orchestra, whi) . 
“orchestra and band men avoid the choir mainly 
fear of failure. It takes a lot of nerve for a choral ” 
ner se to stand before an instrumental group, lf 
thinking has been only in the choral idiom, it demand 
that he make the proper preparation technically «! 
well as adjust his attitude toward the “tooting trump. 
e ts» and ‘‘pounding drums, that often cause his “deli 
cate ears” so much pain. It is likewise difficult for the 
“dyed in the wool band man to appreciate the ethereal 
sounds of a well modulated choir. If he would but try 
his hand at the choir, the band under his tutelage 
would take on a musical sound that had not existed 
before the director’s conversion. 

We possess the potential to realize the maximum 
connotation of the Psalmist’s words. Let us not deny 
our musical birthright by living exclusively in the six- 
teenth century with its incomparable polyphony, j n 
the nineteenth century Russia with her majestic 
church music, or in any other particular place or time 
Music seems to be one of the few activities of p man’s 
life in which he may exercise the whim to be fickle. He 
may traverse the ages from Palestrina to Benjamin 
Britten, and instead of suffering pangs of conscience 
for his philandering, he is granted a feeling of mastery 
with an appreciation of life all about him. Our teen- 
age fiddlers and singers may enjoy this same enriching 
experience if we, as teachers, lead the way. Don’t keep 
them four hundred years behind times, and by the 
same token, do not shut the gloriou past from them. 
Permit our youngsters to relive all the ages through 
the universal medium, Music. 

Now what about this "new 

ii it. „ U.v. AVtn mriln/li* 

,nd its interpreta- 

Music of The Renaissance and Later Periods 

Let us recall the churchly mood of the Renaissance 
Period through singing the Inspired polyphony of de 
Pres, di Lasso, Palestrina, Vittoria, Gabrieli, and Byrd. 
Imbue the ancient pages with the t pirlt of American 
youth and from these dusty sheets glean a modicum of 
the serenity and repose that characterize the essence 
of that deep religious feeling. Perform the music 
a cappella if you wish, even though originally, it might 
have had the support of an instrument or two. Ap- 
proach this art with an awe inspired incerity, and do 
not permit this noble expression to continue as a mere 

“American Fad.” 

Let us have fun singing the madrigals of the Italians 
and Englishmen of the same period, Marenzio, Veechi, 
the Gabrielis, Wilbye, Weelkes, and Morley. Don the 
costumes of the progenitors, sit about the ensemble 
table, and feast from this ancient secular song; present 
programs for the school assembly and local Rotary 
Club, but also insist that the singer in the Elizabethan 
garb be able to play the trumpet or to act as drum 
major for the band or both. The evening’s rehearsal 
might well be interspersed with a popular song for 
the “bobbysoxer’s” more immediate delight. You may 
feel sure that Mr. Thomas Morley or Senior di Lasso 
would have done likewise, for madrigals were their 
“popular music.” A special refrain on the lute or re- 
corder would surely have been in order. How fortunate 
we are to have the fun that they knew, plus the oppor- 
tunity of choosing from all that has existed since their 

Let us call in the instrumental forces to sing & nc * 
play the music of Pergolesi, Bach, Purcell, and Handel. 
These men had created something new! New instru- 
ments, new harmonies, new combinations of musical 
forces. They began to understand the effectiveness of 
instrumental music as an independent idiom, as well 
as an important counterpart for their choral writing. 
A Bach Chorale is extremely effective when sung unac- 
companied, but the instrumental support of a full band 
or orchestra endows the whole with a nobility in keep- 
ing with the generic form. Orchestras and bands use 
these chorales for tuning exercises. Add a well-trained 
choir to this “exercise,” and afford an audience an un- 
usual treat. In reading the more difficult works a more 
competent orchestra or instrumental group becomes 
necessary. With its strong lead the country over, in- 
strumental music should find the task simple in com- 
parison to much of the technical tour de force that is 
emanding much of rehearsal time. Vocal and instru- 
mental men alike must develop an anxiousness to per- 
orm this music; otherwise, we shall continue as has 
so often been the case. The ( Continued on Page 722 ) 



B EETHOVEN was not alone in lamenting the in- 
adequacy of string bass players. He said that 
they should be the most sensitive musicians in 
the orchestra, and proceeded to write bass parts which 
are a challenge to both ingenuity and musicianship to 
perform. Ability to execute difficult passages from his 
symphonies is a good criterion by which to measure a 
bass player even today. 

In attempting to raise the standard of performance 
in his string bass section, the orchestra director is 
faced with a special problem. Many of the players in 
school orchestras have adopted the bass as a means of 
securing orchestral experience, not for love of the 
particular instrument. Many are pianists with whom 
the bass is merely a secondary interest. Consequently, 
they are not prepared to devote the time and effort 
necessary to its complete mastery. A good bass player 
must be prepared to work as intensively as a violinist 
or ’cellist. 

Secondly, the fact that the bass is physically large, 
imposes unusual physical demands upon the player. 
Passages which can be negotiated with ease on the 
smaller stringed instruments become a major problem 
when attempted on the bass. The greater distance be- 
tween intervals, and the requirement of the applica- 
tion of greater strength in the production of tone are 
the factors which account for this difference. The bass, 
player must be physically well endowed to be equipped 
to meet those demands. He must have the stamina to 
endure as rigorous a course in muscular development 
as a weight lifter. 

Furthermore, no instrument requires a keener sense 
of pitch, unless it is the tympani. Intonation in the 
middle and upper register of the ’cello or violin, which 
can be heard readily by the player even in forte pas- 
sages, is quite different from the indefinite type of 
tone vaguely heard on the lower strings of the bass. 
The tympani player and the ’cellist, particularly on 
his C string, have the same problem. A combination of 
a keen sense of pitch and sensitive manual dexterity 
is required of the bass player. 

Encourage Bass and 'Cello Type Players 

Obviously, the material with which the orchestra 
director has to work is a primary, consideration in 
solving the problem of developing a bass section. Some 
students will have a natural inclination toward in- 
struments of the bass and ’cello type. This attitude 
should be encouraged by giving these instruments 
more prominence in the ensemble. This can be done 
by featuring compositions which include something 
more than a rhythm part in the bass. Melodic passages, 
within the range and technical capacity of the player, 
will be a definite contribution toward development of 
tone and technic, and more important, toward an un- 
derstanding and appreciation of the instrument. 

The string bass is not, as it is often treated by com- 
posers, merely a rhythmic reinforcement to the orches- 
tra. The great composers, Beethoven, Brahms, Franck, 
and moderns such is Ravel and Strauss, have all given 


Building the String Bass Section 

In, ManJ IZ. X 


For the past seven years Mr. Leland R. Long has been associated with the Music Department 
of the City Schools of Sacramento, California. At present Mr. Long is Conductor of the Sacra- 
-..i- HT„I, Orchestra and first cellist of the Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra. 

themes and solo parts to the string bass. Composers 
of music used in schools, so-called “educational music, 
have perhaps contributed to lack of interest in the 
bass, and the difficulty most directors experience in 
recruiting a bass section, because of their unwillingness 
to write more melodic passages for this instrument. 
While this is understandable from the viewpoint of the 
director who must bring bass players into the orchestra 
with a minimum of training in order to have a section 
at all, more material with bass melody is definitely 
needed. Only a very unimaginative individual could 
be expected to be con- 
tent with pumping out 
the rhythm indefinitely 
without opportunity for 
a featured part. 

Two Essentials 

In addition to secur- 
ing appropriate material 
for the basses in the 
orchestra, the director 
should consider the ma- 
terial to be used in in- 
dividual instruction and 
sectional rehearsal. 

While there are a num- 
ber of good methods pub- 
lished, the classic in the 
field, and the one pre- 
scribed by most con- 
servatories is that by 
Simandl. The best pro- 
cedure is to use Simandl 
as the basic text and 
other methods as sup- 
plementary material. A 
thorough mastery of the 
text will assure a good 
scale foundation and a 
knowledge of positions, 
both vertically and hori- 
zontally. Unless the po- 
sitions on the lower 
strings are stressed, they 
are likely to be neglected 
by the average player. 

Two essentials are im- 
portant in assisting in 
this "horizontal” development. The player should be 
taught to recognize octaves and use octave fingering 
whenever possible. Also, he should know how to play 
intervals within reach of the hand on adjacent strings 
by recognizing the intervals involved. 

Octaves are a comparatively simple matter on the 
bass. The reach from first finger to fourth, skipping 
the intermediate string, produces an octave in any 
position. For example, with the first finger on B-flat 


Edited by W i 1*1 i a m D. Revelli 


on the A string, the fourth finger will fall upon B-flat 
on the G string. Proceeding upward one half step, the 
same fingers on these strings will produce the octave B 
natural, the next half step, C natural, and so on, up 
the finger board. Octave recognition is an important 
adjunct to bass technic. 

The intervals on adjacent strings within reach of the 
hand are thirds, fourths, and fifths. Since the bass is 
tuned in fourths, any finger laid across the strings 
horizontally will produce a fourth in any position. 
First finger on the lower string, fourth on the upper, 

will produce a fifth. First 
on the upper, fourth on 
the lower, will produce 
a small third, fourth to 
second, a large third. Ap- 
plication of this knowl- 
edge in all positions will 
not only assist one in 
gaining a thorough 
knowledge of the finger- 
board, but will focus at- 
tention upon interval 
recognition where it 
should be. Recognition of 
intervals is a most im- 
portant factor in secur- 
ing good intonation. 

While a thorough 
grounding in a good 
method is the best an- 
swer to most of the diffi- 
culties in left hand tech- 
nic, development of style 
and phrasing, as well as 
a singing tone, may come 
about through use of ap- 
propriate solo material. 
There are many bass 
solos now published, with 
piano accompaniment, 
which will provide the 
player with more ex- 
tended opportunities for 
cantabile playing than 
are to be found in the 
methods. Books of or- 
chestral studies are like- 
. wise a source for profit- 
able study. The bass parts of Beethoven symphonies, 
as has been mentioned, are a compendium of material 
involving both technic and expression. 

Borrowing from 'Cello Literature 

Some of the more recently published bass solos use the 
raised tuning, each string being raised one whole step. 
If very thin strings are used, and the change-over is 
made very gradually, additional brilliance may be ob- 
tained because of the increased tension upon the strings. 

Advanced players have another source of solo ma- 
terial in ’cello literature. Many short solos, and some 
of the longer concertos and sonatas, may be performed 
on the bass. Some of them may be transcribed in the 
original key, but often this ( Continued on Page 723) 



Sacramento Senior High School Orchestra 

The Evolution of Electricity in the Organ 

(Continued from Page 680 ) 

and especially with the manuals coupled, 
resulted in playing becoming a muscular 
feat which my good friend, the Editor 
of The Etude, so well describes as “a 
training school for pugilists.” Tracker 
action has not been manufactured by 
organ builders for over thirty years. 

In principle, the tracker action was 
roughly somewhat as follows: The con- 
sole was attached directly to the organ 
itself. The key action was a mechanical 
device by which each key was fastened 
to a strip of wood (tracker) . By leverage 
this tracker opened the valves of each 
pipe as controlled by the number of 
ranks desired, depending upon how many 
stops were drawn. This action meant, in 
reality, the forcing open of these valves 
by the pressure of the organist’s finger, 
each additional stop thereby increasing 
the muscular demands. 

Consequently, key resistance consti- 
tuted a serious handicap to performance. 
An organist with well developed piano 
technic found himself faced with a 
manual difficulty which made his pianistic 
experience almost nil. With some key- 
boards the weight of touch required in 
soft playing was only about four ounces, 
not much different from that of the 
piano, which is about three and one-half 
ounces on a grand piano. On the low 
notes with larger valves this resistance 
might be as high' as eight ounces. To 
sustain a chord of eight notes we might 
then expect an average of about three 
pounds. Unlike the piano, this pressure 
had to be exerted during the entire 
length of the notes, thus involving a con- 
tinued muscular tension. 

With Swell coupled to Great, the weight 
would be doubled (six pounds) . Add to 
this a super couple or Choir to Great and 
the result is almost ten pounds. Many 
tracker action organs had a pneumatic 
stack on the Great to alleviate the situa- 
tion slightly. I well recall a large three 
manual organ in which the action was so 
heavy that with full' organ and manuals 
coupled, it was impossible to play any- 
thing but slow music. The resistance 
must have been twelve to fifteen pounds 
on each chord. Imagine playing a major 
organ composition on such a monstrosity! 

Pneumatic Action 

In 1835 Dr. Bedart of the University of 
Lille, Prance, developed a tubular pneu- 
matic action constructed by Mortesser. 
By a simple exhaust principle, the valves 
were opened by an impulse of wind 
through lead tubes. This idea was incor- 
porated in the organ at St. Paul’s Cathe- 
dral, London, by Henry Willis in 1872. 
Until the introduction of electricity, tubu- 
lar pneumatic actions were rather gen- 
erally installed in European organs, al- 
though not common in this country. 

After a short period of experimental 
progress with a tubular pneumatic sys- 
tem, there was developed the modern 
electric action which has eliminated all 
the clumsy complications and heavy touch 
of yesterday. For complete description of 
the details of the electro-pneumatic ac- 
tion of today the reader is referred to 
any of the many good books on organ 

By introducing electricity into the or- 
gan it was possible to achieve an opera- 
tion which was practically instantaneous 
and eventually, completely dependable. A 
long, detailed description of various at- 
tempts to make such a method successful 
would be out of place. Suffice to say 
that after much experimentation the 
principle of the electro-magnet and an 
undeviating source of electrical supply 
now available in most communities have 
combined to give us an action which is 
responsive and susceptible to as light a 
key resistance as is deemed practical. 

The following sentences from “The 
Contemporary American Organ,” by Wil- 
liam H. Barnes, succinctly describe the 
operation of electro-pneumatic action. 
“When a key is depressed, it makes either 
a single or a multiple contact. That is, 
it closes or completes one or more series 
of electric circuits. On account of the 
coupling system ... it is necessary for 
the key to close simultaneously a rather 
large number of circuits.” More detailed 
information may be obtained in Chapter 
17 of this excellent book. 

Most of our American organs familiar 
to all organists possess a touch com- 
parable to that of the piano. Nearly all 
players prefer that it be not too light, 
because of the likelihood of accidental 
sounding of notes not intended to speak. 
Thus we have accomplished the estab- 
lishment of relief from direct operation 
of the mechanical parts of the organ 
through the medium of electricity. 

The Electronics Appear 

With the application of electricity to 
the motor supplying the wind, and the 
development of a reliable electric action, 
an instrument was developed Which meets 
the demands of the organist satisfactorily, 
from the playing standpoint. No longer 
is it necessary to secure a technic based 
on strength. Manual performance now 
has the same general attributes as on the 
piano. This accounts for the generally 
accepted view that good organ playing is 
entirely dependent upon a first class 
piano technic. 

When the word “organ” was used by 
organists, it always referred to that tradi- 
tional instrument possessing pipes which 
speak by means of wind pressure. In the 
last ttvo decades there have appeared in 
the musical world a series of instruments 
bearing definite resemblance to the or- 
gan, but these are instruments in which 
the sounds have originated by various 
electrical mechanisms, usually without 
the use of wind, and without pipes. These 
electronics have assumed greater impor- 
tance because of a number of factors, in- 
cluding low cost, economy of space, and 

In the remainder of this article con- 
sideration will be given to several of these 
newcomers in the realm of music. Obvi- 
ously few of those which have assumed 
wider use can be described within the 
limits of this article. 

Early attempts to produce music elec- 
trically followed closely in the wake of 
the appearance of the telephone. An 
early pioneer was Thaddeus M. Cahill, 
shortly after the turn of the present cen- 

amplifiers. curr ents and tele- 

means of alternatl g ally remarkable in- 
phone receiver „ Tel _ Har monium." 

smment »Ue4 1 d , M ClumJ- 

came the use of the oscillation p^ss bfi _ 
ties of the vacuum tube. The Wesun„ 
house Company developed this idea. A 
real problem lay in the production of a 
tone that was pure as well as constant A 
solution was eventually discovered n re 
ferring any given note to the unfaltering 
pilch of a tuning fork, thus insuring an 
absolutely accurate intonation. As a r 
suit of this essential basis for a musical 
instrument there appeared in 1931 an in- 
strument of amazing possibilities known 
as the Rangertone Organ. 

The Rangertone Organ 

This is an early electronic instrument 
definitely organ-like in character, sup- 
plied with pitch corroborating tuning 

A fundamental tone definitely flute- 
like in quality furnishes the basis. To 
this may be added any or all of a com- 
plete set of the first few upper partials 
to produce a great number of tone colors. 
As a result, there is possible a complete 
set of sixty-one keys, with the funda- 
mental tone and its ufcper harmonics 
each with five dynamic strengths. 

In the Rangertone several unique fea- 
tures are available. One may adjust the 
instrument to the intonation of the true- 
tempered scale for the performance of 
music designed for such tuning. By 
touching the proper stop-tongue the or- 
gan is instantly retuned to the equal 
temperament system. Percussive and piz- 
zicato effects may be obtained readily. 

Mr. Richard H. Ranger, inventor of 
this revolutionary instrument, was an or- 
ganist residing in Newark, New Jersey. As 
an experimental engineer connected with 
the Radio Corporation of America in 
picture transmission, he conceived the 
idea of an electrical musical device simi- 
lar in tone and console design, to the 
organ. Prom the Rangertone there ema- 
nated a series of electronic instruments 
simulating the organ, until we have in 
perspective today the following electron- 
ics, announced, designed, invented, or 
actually manufactured. These, presented 
chronologically in the order of their ap- 
pearance, are: 

Hammond, Photona, Phototone (Ger- 
many), The Compton Electrone (Eng- 
land), Orgatron (now manufactured in 
improved form by the Wurlitzer Com- 
pany, under the name of “The Wurlitz- 
er”) , Lowrey, Polytone, Storytone, Electro 
statone (England), Organova (Prance) 
Vega-Vox, Connsonata, Allen, Baldwin. 

(Other electronic instruments have at- 
tracted wide attention but have not vet 
been inspected by the author. The tone 
generation sources of the Allen organs 
are not located on the console, but are 
mounted on metal frames encased in 
wooden cabinets connected to the con- 
sole by means of cables. A three manual 
electronic Allen organ recently installed 
at St Paul’s Evangelical Lutheran Church 
at Catasauqua, Pennsylvania cost $22 000 

stops ) the 6Cfuivalent of fi % speaking 

In our further consideration of elec- 
tronics, it is necessary only to describe 
oriefly a few. Perhaps the best taown o 


electric organs is the Hammond, the m 
widely used of such instruments t 
vented by the brilliant Laurens Ha^ 
mond, and manufactured by the Ha 
mond Instrument Co., the Hammo^ 
electric organ produces its tone by mea 
of a revolving tone-wheel, which is ^ 
tagonal rather than round, and a magnet 
encased in a coil. While the wheel do 1 
not actually touch the magnet, as each 
corner passes the magnet, an impulse t 
generated in the coil. The speed of these 
impulses determines the pitch. 

The Hammond was first shown at 
Rockefeller Center (New York), April 13 
1935, and two days later was demon- 
strated daily at the Industrial Arts Ex- 
hibition for about a month. Like the 
Rangertone the tone qualities are con- 
trived by the addition of various over- 
tones. The “stops" which produce these 
overtones furnish the sub-quint sub- 
octave below the fundamental pitch. 
Above come the 4' octave, the twelfth' 
fifteenth, seventeenth, nineteenth, and 
twenty-second. Tonally, each of these 
nine stops is like the others, and of equal 

While the manufacturers claim that 
there are 253,000,000 tone colors avail- 
able with the Hammond, the average ear 
is able to distinguish relatively few of 
these timbres. The virtues of the Ham- 
mond seem to lie in the direction of 
mechanical perfection, case of manipu- 
lation, and relatively low cost. Hammond 
organs are very widely used In large and 
smaller churches and In radio. The manu- 
facturers proudly point to the fact that 
oue of their instruments Is used in Can- 
terbury Cathedral, England. 

The Orgatron 

Another significant addition to the 
growing list was the Orgatron (now, in 
greatly improved form, known as “The 
Wurlitzer"). This appeared at about the 
same time as the Hammond. It was built 
by thq Everett Plano Co. as a result of' 
research by Frederick A. Hoschke, himself 
an organist and composer. The tone is 
produced by the vibration of a free reed 
set in motion by wind, as in the case of 
the harmonium and the melodeon. Over- 
tones are natural ones and not synthetic, 
as in instruments where partials are pro- 
duced artificially and added according to 
the fancy of the player to accomplish 
various tone qualities. There are definite 
stops, as in the case of the wind pressure 
organ. These include Flute, Diapason. 
Dulciana, Viole (with a Celeste). In each 
manual we have all four colors, with bor- 
rowing in the field of their volume, rather 
than color. 

Since the Everett Piano Company sold 
the Orgatron to the Rudolph Wurlitzer 
Company of North Tonawando, New 
York, there have been some importan 
elaborations in the Instrument. In their 
printed publicity it is evident that a 
unified specification, somewhat like t e 
familiar unit organ made by this firnt 
has given a larger number of speaking 
stops (thirty-two in number). 

Several quotations may be of interes ■ 
“The Wurlitzer Organ is an.instrumen 
that has the appearance of and plays an 
sounds like a pipe organ.” “It remains 
for the Wurlitzer Organ, by wedding t ® 
science of electronics to principles whic^ 
the basis of the pipe organ tone P r0 
duction, to solve the problem with com 
plete perfection.” These statements ap- 
pear to move farther in the direction 0 
( Continued on Page 720) 



The Sautille Arpeggio 

I have a pupil who will soon be ready 
for me Scene de Ballet by De Benot . . . 
and I am worried about the spring-bow 
arpeggios. . ■ ■ I have never been able to 
play^that sort of bowing very well. My 
teacher said if I keep my wrist loose it 
would come, but it never has. . . . H .you 
could give me some hints on how to learn 
it and how to teach it, I would be very 
grateful.— (Miss) L. C., Texas. 

You are not the only violinist who has 
trouble with springing-bow, or sautille, 
arpeggio. It is a bowing which can be 
difficult for a player who has not in 
addition to a loose wrist, a lightly- 
balanced and well-controlled arm. But 
with thought and patience it can be 
acquired, and the study of it is of real 
benefit to a player’s bowing technique 
in general. 

Begin your work -on the problem with 
three-string arpeggios played legato in 
the middle of the bow, using very short 
bow-strokes. (Ex. A.) The varying tilt of 
the bow stick must have your attention 
first On the lowest string the stick 
should be tilted slightly towards you, on 
the middle string the stick should be 
vertically above the hairs, and on the 
highest string it should be tilted a little 
away from you. The reason for this is 
simple: If the bow is tilted away from 
you on the lowest note of an arpeggio, 
it will be tilted so far over when it 
reaches the highest note that only a few 
hairs will be in contact with the string. 
This will inevitably cause the tone to be 
weak and thin in legato arpeggios and 
will prevent the bow from springing in 
the sautille. . . 

This varying tilt of the bow is obtained 
as follows: The hand and arm are in 
their natural, straight-line position when 
the bow is on the middle string; to reach 
the low string the arm rises slightly, the 
hand lifts from the wrist a little, and 
there is a slight bending of the fingers. 
Thus the necessary movement is dis- 
tributed among the various joints of the 
hand and arm. In passing from the 
middle to the high string the motion is 
reversed. It is a complex motion, and 
some slow and careful practice will be 
necessary before it can be made with 
good coordination. 

When you can play the legato arpeggios 
evenly and at some speed, begin work 
on Exs. B, C, and D. 

Ex. A Ex.B 

In Ex. B the accent is made by a small 
downward flick of the hand just as the 
Up bow begins. In Ex. C the accent is 
made by a slight upward flick at the 
beginning of the Down bow. In both 
exercises use as little bow as possible for 
the legato notes. Ex. D should be prac- 
ticed at first in the slowest tempo at 
which the bow will involuntarily spring. 
The accents should be only just enough 
to renew the springing of the bow, since 
too much accent will cause it to bound 
too high. 

Whqja you can play the three-string 
sautille with good control, start working 
on four strings. The technique is exactly 
the same except that the arm moves a 
little further on each stroke. 

The Violinist’s Forum 

Conducted by 

No question will be answered in THE ETUDE 
unless accompanied by . the lull name 
and address of the inquirer. Only initials 
or pseudonym given, will be published. 

As soon as you are getting the bow to 
spring, keep this in mind: Don’t work too 
hard. The bow is a resilient tool and 
will do most of the work for you if you 
will let it. The chief reason why so many 
players have trouble with the bowing is 
that they forget it is a “springing” bow- 
ing and, therefore, semi-involuntary. The 
same thing is true of th e spiccato. Most 
people use too much physical effort and, 
in so doing, prevent the bow from exer- 
cising its own natural function. 

Visual, Ear, and Finger Memory 

... In the last few weeks I have had 
several arguments with other musicians 
about musical memory and memorizing, 
and their opinions are divided about fifty- 
fifty . . . Here is the question: When 
playing from memory, is one supposed to 
see the actual notes in his mind, or should 
one just let the ear and fingers do the 
work 9 . . . My teacher holds the second 
opinion (he calls the other “the hard 
way”). But a friend of mine who is a very 
good pianist asks: "How can you keep 
time if youAon’t actually see the notes? 

I would very much like to have your 
opinion.— J. L., Prov. of Quebec. 

I agree completely witb your teacher. 
Anyone who tries to “see” every note of 
the music when he is playing by heart is 
certainly making life hard for himself. 
As a matter of fact, in rapid music it 
cannot possibly be done, except perhaps 
by certain very rare individuals who have 
a photographic memory— which, inci- 
dentally, has nothing to do with musical 

Let us suppose you are playing, from 
music, a piece with which you are well 
acquainted. Even then you do not read 
separately each individual note in rapid 
passages; you read the outlines and con- 
tours and, so to speak, the high lights of 
each phrase, your previous practice hav- 
ing taught you the individual elements 
of the passage. In other words, although 

Prominent Teacher 
and Conductor 

you have the music in front of you, you 
are actually playing a good deal of it 
from memory. 

The chief aid that visual memory gives 
to a player is in enabling him to remem- 
ber which page and which part of a page 
he is playing. In many compositions 
there are a number of passages which 
begin identically but end differently. 
Such passages are always danger spots; 
but if the player is aware of the places 
on the music where they occur, he should 
have little difficulty in remembering 
which ending to take. In this connection 
it may be said that a thorough knowledge 
of the accompaniment and the progres- 
sion of its harmonies is an invaluable aid 
to remembering which way the music is 
headed. But then, complete familiarity 
with the accompaniment is absolutely 
essential to all memorizing. 

Much more important than visual 
memory are ear-memory and finger- 
memory. When you are playing a com- 
position by heart, you should “hear” the 
music coming towards you in the same 
way that the road seems to come towards 
the driver of an automobile. That is to 
say, your ear-memory should be a little 
ahead of your fingers, just as your eye 
should be ahead of them when you are 
playing from notes. In order that your 
ear may function in this way you must 
carefully study every aspect of the com- 
position— the notes, the expression, the 
rhythmic values, and the underlying 
harmonies — so that it is for you a closely 
integrated whole. Memorized in this way, 
each element of the music suggests the 
others. This is ear-memory in the widest 
sense of the word. 

For the playing of slow compositions, 
ear-memory helped by a little visual 
memory is usually sufficient, but in rapid 
playing finger-memory is vitally neces- 
sary. This form of memory is nothing 
more than the habit acquired by the 
fingers, through scores of repetitions, of 
being in the right place at the right time. 
In a rapid passage, the ear does not have 
time to “hear” the individual notes and 
certainly the mind is not able to ‘see 
them. So the player must rely on the 
automatic response of his fingers, aided 
by his awareness of the passage as a 
whole. This response is most quickly 
gained by constant slow practice. Quite 
often, too, the mind will momentarily 
wander or the ear “black out.” In such 
cases the responsibility falls entirely on 
the fingers; if they have been well trained 
they will carry on until the mind regains 

Here are two tests of your memorizing: 

att ojSSF- 



(1) Play through the composition, by 
heart, four times as slowly as it ought 
to go; (2) finger through it, also by 
heart and at the correct tempo, “hear- 
ing” the music mentally, but without 
using the bow. If a solo passes these 
tests, you have it memorized. 

I was rather amused by your friend’s 
idea that one must “see” the music in 
order to keep time. You might ask him 
if one must be aware of the spelling of 
each word in order to recite poetry 
rhythmically. I am afraid his natural 
sense of rhythm is limited, or else he has 
never learned to rely upon it. 

Futility of Ironclad Rules 

. . . Concerning the third position, Scheer 
says: “The hand remains the same as in 
the first position. When the hand is 
advanced to the third position it does not 
lean against nor touch the body of the 
violin. Keep the wrist back.” Well, I don’t 
lean the thumb towards the body of the 
violin, but my wrist touches the body on 
the other side. Is this wrong?— F. B., 

This is a good example of the futility 
of making ironclad rules about violin 
playing. It is not necessarily wrong for 
the wrist to touch the violin when the 
hand is in the third position, but there 
are times when allowing it to do so might 
hinder technical fluency. If you are play- 
ing a passage which includes a shift 
from the third position to the fifth or 
higher, then the wrist should certainly 
be a little away from the ribs, and the 
elbow further under the violin, for two or 
three notes prior to the shift. Any other 
shaping of the hand and arm would 
endanger the accuracy of the shift. Then 
again, when the third position is used 
in the playing of an emotional passage, 
you would get much better results w’ith 
the wrist somewhat away from the violin, 
for otherwise you would not be able to 
use a combined wrist and arm vibrato. 
However, if the passage is from a solo 
of the classic period or if its emotional 
content is simple — in other words, if the 
wrist vibrato alone is sufficient for its 
musical expression — then there is no rea- 
son at all why your wrist should not 
touch the violin. The main thing is that 
you should be able to play with equal 
ease and security no matter whether 
your wrist is touching or not. 

In shaping the hand for the third posi- 
tion, what the thumb does is rather more 
important than what the wrist is doing. 
Many players make a fetish of keeping 
the thumb always behind the first finger. 
This is sometimes very necessary, but 
only sometimes. If you are preparing to 
shift up to the fifth position, or down to 
the first, then the thumb must lie back 
along the neck; in a complicated passage 
of double-stops, the same principle ap- 
plies as strongly as it does in the first 
position. But in most melodic passages 
the forward position of the thumb, op- 
posite or nearly opposite the second fin- 
ger, is definitely preferable, for it en- 
ables the player to maintain a stronger 
and more equalized finger pressure. 

One further point requires our notice: 
Scheer’s advice to keep the wrist back. 
This can easily be misinterpreted. 
Whether the wrist is allowed to touch 
the ribs or not, it should never be allowed 
to bulge outward. Many players acquire 
this unfortunate habit in the mistaken 
( Continued on Page 718) 




How Can I Learn to Read Bach? 

Q. Ever since my grammar school days 
I have played the piano in a rather ama- 
teurish fashion, and during the past ten 
years I have played clarinet and saxo- 
phone in dance bands at irregular inter- 
vals. I have recently become interested 
in playing Bach on the organ, and have 
taken up piano again in order to obtain 
a more facile approach to the problems 
of execution and sight reading. I find, 
however, that I do not have an accurate 
reading technic, and I would appreciate 
your suggestions as to how I might learn 
to read with greater ease and accuracy. 

I can read English at high speed with 
considerable accuracy, but I can't seem to 
apply this ability to the reading of mu- 
sic.— H. E. F. 

A. Good reading at the piano or organ 
depends mostly on three things : (1) look- 
ing ahead; (2) apprehending the key re- 
lationships of the material; (3) adequate 
facility to play what is being read. 

Most people who do not read well fail 
because they look at the notes they are 
playing' for too long a time. The good 
reader, on the contrary, is always looking 
ahead, always preparing his mind and his 
fingers for what lies ahead of that which 
he is playing. He reads by phrases, or at 
least by groups of notes, rather than by 
individual notes. Since you are able to 
read English with both speed and ac- 
curacy, I suggest that you take a little 
time to analyze your reading process. 
You will probably discover two things: 
(1) that your eye is always ahead — espe- 
cially when you are reading aloud; (2) 

' that you take in the material by groups 
of words rather than by single words. 
And because you are reading by phrases 
you are able to read more expressively 
so far as accent, tempo, and pronuncia- 
tion are concerned. Now apply this to 
your reading of music and try to do the 
same thing. 

The second point at which many peo- 
ple fail is that they read only with their 
eyes, whereas the fine reader is con- 
stantly using his knowledge of key re- 
lationships and of structure as well. If 
there is an arpeggio covering the entire 
keyboard, for example, the intelligent 
reader is aware that this is merely the 
chord of E major spread out, so he reads 
only the first few notes — and guesses at 
the rest. If there is a change in signature 
from four sharps to one sharp, he guesses 
that much of what he has been playing in 
E major is now being repeated in E 
minor; and he doesn’t have to read D- 
sharp as a foreign tone every time be- 
cause he is at once aware of this note as 
the leading tone in the key of E minor, 
so he senses it rather than having to read 
it every time it appears. Sometimes of 
course the composer plays a little joke 
on the reader, but especially in reading 
the older music, you will find that the 
composer is apt to be very “regular.” 
That is why the study of harmony, 
counterpoint, and form is so essential, 
and you have either not had sufficient 
study of music theory, or else you are not 
applying what you know. 

Finally, many people read badly be- 
cause they have never taken the trouble 
to build up an adequate mechanical tech- 
nique. They see the notes, they compre- 
hend their musical meaning, but they 
cannot express this meaning because 
their fingers have not been adequately 
trained to make keyboard responses to 
visual stimuli. 

Questions and Answers 

Conducted by 

JU W. QeLLu, nu 2oc. 

Professo. Emeritus 
Oberlin College 
Music Editor, Webster's New 
International Dictionary 

teacher does. These hand positions are 
used for practically all single-note glis- 
sandos on either the black or white notes, 
and I am sure they will prove satisfactory 
for the passage in Espana. 

Abbreviation for the 1 remolo 

Q. I am studying without a teacher at 
present, and I have come across a problem 
in notation that I cannot understand. Will 
you help me with it? — J. A. A. 

I have one practical suggestion for you: 
Begin your attempt to improve your read- 
ing by using very simple material. Go 
back to hymn tunes and Grade I piano 
pieces, compelling yourself to read the 
score perfectly the first time — including 
an awareness of key changes, signs of ex- 
pression, fingering, and other details. 
Proceed very gradually to more difficult 
material — and don’t expect to become ex- 
pert overnight. I might remark in con- 
clusion that the experience of playing in 
a dance band probably did you no good 
so far as learning to read Bach accurately 
is concerned! 

How to Play Glissandos 

Q. Please give me your opinion on how 
to play glissandos. I play ascending glis- 
sandos, such as the one in the two-piano 
arrangement • of Chabrier’s Espana with 
my thumb. How do you play a descending 
glissando? I know one teacher who says 
she plays all glissandos with her hand 
doubled and on the nails— on white or 
black keys, up or down on the piano. I 
have also observed players use the third 
finger. Thank you for any help you can 
give me on this question.— F. E. R. 

OH G g 


— i 




3 3 



A. Since I do not have a copy of the 
two-piano arrangement of Chabrier’s 
Espana, I do not know whether that 
glissando needs special treatment. But 
the usual way of playing glissandos is as 
follows: for an ascending glissando in the 
right hand, invert the hand and use the 
nail of the third finger (for a very light 
glissando, you might use the second fin- 
ger, for a firmer one, use both the third 
and fourth fingers) ; for a descending 
glissando in the right hand, use the nail 
of the thumb; for an ascending glissando 
in the left hand, use the nail of the 
thumb; and for a descending glissando 
in the left hand, use the nail of the third 
finger, with the hand inverted. I sup- 
pose one could gain strength and solidity 
by pressing the thumb against the third 
and fourth fingers as you have said one 


A. The abbreviation that puzzles you 
is called “tremolo,” and the intention is 
that the player alternate the tones of the 
chord or octave rapidly to the full value 
of the notes as printed. In the right- 
hand part of your excerpt the tremolo 
effect continues for only three beats, 
these being followed by three others 
printed in regular notation. In the left- 
hand part the dotted-half note indicates 
that the tremolo effect is to continue 
throughout the measure. (Mathematically 
a dotted-half note is equal in value to six 
eighth notes.) You will find other ex- 
amples of tremolo notation in your mu- 
sic dictionary under “Tremolo” or per- 
haps under “Abbreviations.” 

About Turns. Trills, and 

Q. I have had some piano studv in no** 
years but am now working by mvself and 

when the mordent sign is nlac-d =1, ‘ 
note?-— E. M. R. K 1S p aced above the 

A The ordinary turn has four tones- 

tone- ffi) The 6 t0ne ab ° Ve the P^cipai 
^ the PHncipal tone; (3) the scale 
tone below the principal tone- ( 4 t the 
principal tone again. If the turn • ^ 
pears to the right of th„ 6 \ Um Slgn ap ’ 
cipal toneTs ffiaved f n the prin ' 

usually held until its^tim^h ^ and 


in the scale. Some trills begin win, 
principal tone, others with th tlle 
above. In the latter case a small nt 10116 
before the principal note Is often ° • 1 
to show where the trill is to begin 51 ' 11160 
A mordent sign ( ♦ ) indicates than, 
principal tone and the scale tone befe 

it are to be performed very qui cklv b 

tVio r\»-< n nnl * oltgj 1 

which the principal tone is sounded 
and held for the full value of the 
note. There is also the “long mow d 
in which the two notes preceding if 
principal one are repeated once or m 
The “inverted mordent” ( * ) is nk ? f r6 ' 
mordent except that the tone above th 
principal tone is used instead of the on 
below it. Because the inverted mordant 
is actually a short trill it is often can?, 
“pralltriller” — which means literals 
“bouncing trill." s 

In most modern editions the editor has 
taken the trouble to unravel the mystery 
of these and other ornaments by showins 
the performer in simple notation just 
what he is to do. This is fortunate, not 
only because the matter is so complj. 
cated, but because there is so much dif- 
ference of opinion even among fine mu- 
slclans as to Just what Bach and other 
early composers meant by their signs. 

To I each or Not to Teach? 

Q. I am fourteen year* old — a sophomore 
In high school. I have studied piano for 
four and a half years and am playing 
piece* by Chopin. Mendelssohn, Debussy, 
and so forth. I would like to become a 
concert pianist but home people have told 
me that it If Impossible for an unknown 
pianist to have success unless he knows 
someone who has influence. My mother 
wishes me to Rive piano lessons for a 
time, and my teacher has given her con- 
sent. but I don't want to give piano les- 
sons and dread the day when I will have 
to. Do you think this wanting to do 
something serious with my music is just 
a childish outburst? If so, do 

you think I should give piano lessons? 
Do you think that I would be cross with 
the children I have to teach, knowing 
that I am teaching against my wishes? I 
will await your answer with the greatest 
impatience. — L. G. 

A. I have great sympathy with your 
desire to do something fine with your 
music, and I hope you will go on work- 
ing hard at It. and tnat In addition to 
practicing several hours a day you will 
find time soon to do some work In har- 
mony. Perhaps your piano teacher could 
help you with the harmony too. 

As for teaching, there are two sides to 
the question; On the one hand there is 
the fact that teaching is a very enlight- 
ening experience, and that bv teaching 
a thing to another, you yourself come to 
know it much better. You would also in 
this way be able to pay for your own 
lessons, and the feeling of independence 
that this would give you might be a fine 
thing for you. But on the other hand is 
the fact that you are very young to begin 
teaching — and that you are dreading !• 
Teaching itself is not so bad — in f act , 1 
comes to be good fun. But in general 1 
am not in favor of pushing people m ^ 
things that they don’t want to do. How 
ever, I am also in favor of compromis , 
so why don’t you take just a few’ pupils-^ 
say a half dozen — and see what happen s _ 
You might find that you like teaclu ”“ 
very much, and as for being lm P atiea t 
with your pupils you would soon find 0 
that scolding doesn’t make them P rog E' 
as well as praise and careful direct!' 
so you would soon stop being cross, 
after all you are a smart girl, and sma 
people don’t go on doing dumb things i 
definitely! Good luck to you. 

the etude 

S INCE I am myself a conductor, people fre- 
quently ask me what the young musician must 
do in order to become a conductor, and to such 
oueries I generally give two replies. The first comes 
from the British comic journal, Punch, and bears the 
caption ’Advice to Those About to Marry.’ The advice 

is don’t i Then I quickly add a quotation from the 

New Testament — ‘It is better to marry than to burn.’ 
There you have my sincerest philosophy about con- 
ducting The young person who looks upon it as just 
another pleasant, interesting, and fruitful occupation 
had best leave it alone. Only the musician who can- 
not find rest for the burning of his inner fires can 
make himself a conductor— and he has no easy road 
before him. 

"To my mind, the question goes a great deal deeper 
than what a young student should be when his formal 
instruction ends. We have all seen the devastating 
disappointments that can result from too much am-- 
bition of the practical sort. Young people fall in love 
with music, also perhaps with the altogether agree- 
able rewards of musical eminence, and make up their 
minds to be ‘great artists.’ Now, that is all wrong! It 
is just as foolish as to enlist in the navy in order to 
be an admiral! If one becomes an admiral at all, he 
does so as the result of years of study and work ap- 
plied to certain inborn qualities. Exactly the same is 
true of artistry. One becomes a conductor only as a 
result, never as a means! 

“My feeling is that, not only in music, but in life in 
general, we pay far too much heed to the top of the 
ladder and not enough to the rungs that lead to the 
top Many of our young people concentrate so closely 
on the hopes of tomorrow that they quite overlook 
today’s work. Much of that, of course, results from our 
system of education. It is here that the first improve- 
ments must be made. To begin with, we should make 
an earnest endeavor to clarify musical values. Let us 
suppose that a pleasant little child shows a pleasant 
little liking for music. What is likely to happen? Its 
parents will rush to the best local teacher and demand 
special instruction for a genius— a second Mozart ! Thus 
the way is paved for no end of disappointments— simply 
because the well-meaning parents have not learned 
to distinguish between better-than-average ability and 
genuine endowment. Or perhaps the parents are not to 
blame— perhaps the youngster himself likes to think 
himself a budding. Kreisler simply because he enjoys 
the violin. It all comes to the same. Again, I am often 
terrified by the way young people muddle themselves 
up between the different kinds of music. How often 

Young People in Music 

A Conference with 

{ W}alco(m ~Sarffent 

Distinguished British Conductor of the 
London Philharmonic, the Halle Orchestra, 
The Liverpool Symphony, and Others 


h6 t ass Sira 

govern music teaching. 


one hears a lad say he loves music — only to learn, upon 
closer investigation, that the music he admires is 
dance jazz! Now, I have not the slightest objection to 
jazz, in its place. But it is not the same as the thing 
we call music. Its values, its qualities, its goals are 
different. The person who masses 
all tone into the one word music 
does himself a great disservice. He 
hinders himself from growing up! 
The adolescent passion for drum- 
beats is not a feeling for music. It 
may lead to an appreciation for 
music— but only if it is properly 

Music for the Average Child 

“Thus, my first step in music 
teaching would be the clearest pos- 
sible understanding of terms and 
values. My second would be to 
build all conservatories for the 
teaching of future professionals, 
on the top of almost unchmbable 
mountains! Then only those who 
dare the impossible would ever take 
the first step in becoming artists. 
That does not mean that I advo- 
cate a reduction in music teach- 
ing! Quite the contrary. I take 
pride in counting myself among 
the first who organized concerts 
for children in London, and I 
ardently believe in encouraging all 
people, to fortify themselves with 
a greater appreciation of music. 
But that is very different from 
encouraging professionalism! We 
must do away with the idea that 
only ‘gifted’ children need music 
lessons (in. order to become 

■artists’) , and that the rank-and-file little citizen can 
be left to shift for himself in this alien world of art. 
Just the opposite is true! The average child, by reason 
of its very averageness, should be given every possible 
help and stimulus to develop an inner world, an inner 
resource of greater-than-average loveliness. Hence, the 
very best thing we could do is to concentrate a greater 
part of our music teaching on the nongenius child! 
We should have regular and well-planned classes in 
music appreciation iq all our schools. Every child 
should be taught to read music as early and as nat- - 
urally as it learns to read print. Indeed, when not 
relegated to the category of an oddity, musical nota- 
tion is. much easier to read than print, because once 
it is learned, it admits of no exceptions (such as we 
take quite for granted in spelling and pronunciation) . 
Thought, and care, and effort should he expended upon 
the very necessary goal of teaching young people to 
know and to love music, solely as listeners. Music is 
an important factor for life happiness, regardless of 
performance talents; and life happiness is the aim of 
all sound education. 

“When it comes to the young person who is genu- 
inely impregnated with music and naturally gifted 
for it, my feeling is that we need not worry too much 
about him! One of the tests of his gift is the un- 
quenchable urge to express himself musically, whether 
or not his environment is perfectly adapted to music 
culture! Into this category, then, I place the conductor 
of tomorrow. The first thing he must learn is — not to 
think of himself as a great conductor! He must learn 
to be a musician, to acquit himself as perfectly as he 
can of the tasks of today. Of course, he must have a 
sound and thorough training — but it must be in mu- 
sicianship rather than in conducting. Actually, the 
only physical skill or practice the conductor requires 
is that of baton manipulation, and that is quite the 
easiest technic there is. It is almost as easy as striking 
the triangle! A child can learn to beat up, to beat 
down, to beat sidewise, and ( Continued on Page 718) 




middle register to high F (or above). The diffi c „u 
. ifcoif in the oualitv of the higher 

Music and Study ^r •> 

* c> *■ ^ Y>* H V * 

What the Singer Needs 

c Career 




Shows itself in the quality of the higher tone lt L 
mistake, however, to attempt to improve matter, V 
working at that higher tone. The point that uL? 
care is the tone in the middle register from which «r 
leap takes off. If that middle tone is well su PD01 C 
the chances are that the higher tones will be fr ee A,’ 
clear. Clarify your extremities of range ) Tom a 
middle voice! 

"While there are no special radio problems in 

A Conference with 

$ane Wifi 


Popular American Soprano 
Featured Soloist with Fred Waring’s Pennsylvanians 


Jane Wilson was born in Mansfield, Ohio, where she received 
her first musical training. She has sung since babyhood; be- 
came a member of a children's choir; and sang her first solo 
in a children's cantata at the age of six. Entering the church 
on this great occasion, she announced to her mother, "I've 
dethided to be a thinger!" She began piano study at eight, 
sang in church choirs and school festivals, and turned* to 
serious vocal study at fifteen. On being graduated from 
high school, Miss Wilson spent a year at Northwestern Uni- 
versity and got a job on a Mansfield newspaper during the 
summer vacation. When Fred Waring brought his Pennsyl- 
vanians to Cleveland for a personal appearance, Miss Wilson 
was sent to interview him. During the interview, she men- 
tioned her vocal ambitions, was given an audition, and 
walked out with a job. At first, her work under Waring was 
confined to little "off-stage echo" obbligatos, and from this 
she worked her way up to the post of featured soloist. Sh'e 
has studied with Florence McDonald, in Mansfield, and with 
Paul Althouse and Bruce Benjamin. In addition to her fea- 
tured radio work, Miss Wilson engages in highly successful 
recital tours. In ’the following conference, she explores the 
important question of the differences between "plain" singing 
and radio singing. — Editor's Note. 

T * 


^HE CHIEF problem of the radio singer is to 
develop a flexibility of style that will serve the 
needs of both good music and popular num- 
bers. The art singer who makes occasional guest ap- 
pearances in radio brings her own repertory with her ; 
and the out-and-out popular singer develops her own 
interpretative style which, once it is successfully estab- 
lished, need hardly be varied at all. The young singer 
who wishes to make a general career in radio, how- 
ever, can depend on no one set style, and must there- 
fore acquire all styles! In my own work, for example, 
I may have .to sing the Bach-Gounod Ave Maria, and 
a current popular ballad on the same program. Each 
must, of course, be presented within the framework 
of its own authentic style. 

“On the whole, the girl who has studied seriously 
will find the difficulty lying in a mastery of the pop- 
ular styles. Her background of study has prepared her 
for the Ave Maria; how is she to treat the hits? My 
own answer is to treat them exactly as she would any 
song. Unless the singer specializes in some sort of 
‘blues’ style, and clings to it, she is wiser to avoid any 
such stylization. Whether you sing a Lied or a light 
popular number, it’s still a song, and must be pro- 
jected with understanding and feeling. 

“My own system is to begin with the music, learning 
it thoroughly. Then I take the words, trying first to 
understand them as to their deepest meaning. It is a 
good idea to recite them, as a dramatic recitation, 
without music, but keeping the rhythmic pulse of the 
music that must be added. The question of enunciation 
(diction) which must be especially clear in radio work, 
can be greatly facilitated by the system of “Tone- 
Syllables” which Mr. Waring has perfected. It was 


devised for choral work, but offers valuable aid to the 
soloist as well. Mr. Waring’s system is to break down 
the plmase into phonetic syllables that follow the line 
of the melody (and consequently of tone production) . 
A special diction problem can arise for high voices. As 
the melodic line of a song rises, a soprano can often 
find herself faced 
with trying to keep 
her tone free at the 
same time that she 
needs special stress 
on a consonant; the 
danger is that the 
stress of the diction 
may tighten her tone. 

In such a case, the 
phonetic singing of 
the syllables is espe- 
cially helpful. 

“A line in My Ro- 
mance, for instance, 
goes, “My romance 
doesn’t need a castle 
rising in Spain.” The 
first four words offer 
no difficulties ; but 
after that, the mel- 
ody rises, and the 
ng sounds plus the 
diphthong in rising 
(actually, rah-ee- 
zing) need care. This, 
then, is broken down 
as “uh ka-sul rah- 
ee-zing-in spay-een.” 

Working at it this 
way clears up the 

“As to actual vocal 
problems, I feel quite 
certain in saying that 
there is no difference 
whatever in good 
voice production for 
‘live’ singing or for 
radio. The funda- 
mental elements of breathing, emission, and resonance 
are exactly the same, and there is only on e wav to 
master them— the right way. way 

The Middle Voice 

“The greatest point of watchfulness 
that of the perfect line-unbroken evenness through 
all registers of range. The answer to this problem t 
my mind, lies in the careful development 1 to 

of the middle voice. A soprano sometimes find^diffi 1 
culty m a melodic line that soars from a tone in tS 




ing, the action of the microphones makes certai'Fprf 
cautions necessary. A high voice, in radio, may some! 
times ‘peak,’ as it is called— that is to say, too much 
volume on a high note may be more than a micro 
phone can take. It is possible, of course, to use less 
volume, or to take a step away from the microphone’ 
but both these remedies are secondary at best. The 
ideal solution is to correct the tone, to keep it from 
spreading or ‘peaking’ on a high note. This means 
focussing the tone and this, in turn, goes back to the 
support and focus of the middle voice. 

"If I had a quick, sure answer to the problem of 
getting a well-supported voice, I should find myself 
in the position of ending all vocal perplexity! For- 
tunately or unfortunately, there is no one pat answer 
or ‘method.’ The only solution is study, time, and 
endless patience. The secret of the -well-supported 
voice lies in providing such support for the middle 
voice; and this is achieved only by constant, endless, 
patient repetition of scales, scales, scales. When the 
middle tones have won support, the higher and lower 
tones seem to develop, or flow, from them. But always, 
the middle voice must come first. 

Breath Control and Good Singing 

“Good breath control is necessary for good singing, 
but too much insistence on breath and breathing can 

cause tensions. For 
years, I rather skirted 
around the edge of 
breath problems be- 
cause the more I 
thought about them 
and worked at them, 
the less relaxed I be- 
came. My cure came 
to me through a dif- 
ficulty! I found that 
I was letting too 
much breath escape 
as unsung air, which 
harmed not only my 
tones but my entire 
production. The first 
solution was to take 
in less breath — it is 
surprising, really, how 
long a phrase can be 
sustained on a nor- 
mal, unexaggerated 
inhalation. One of the 
chief difficulties of 
the ‘stressful breath- 
ing’ school is to draw 
in a mighty, unnat- 
ural (and quite un- 
necessary) inhala- 
tion. You hardly need 
more than for ordi- 
nary speech, and cer- 
tainly no more than 
feels natural. The 
second step in my 
cure consisted in 
keeping up my sup- 

“Many young sing- 
ers, i find, have the tendency to let go their support 
oi each breath when the breath itself is sent out, be- 
gmmng a new support for the next breath as they 
aw it in. in other words, there is a tiny second of 
t F j 11 , su PP° r t of the succeeding tones. There. 

^ e y to my own difficulty — and, X think, 
trj , ey the difficulties of many other singers. The 
rillra , ls to mai ntain adequate support throughout the 
‘ on whatever you are singing, including the 
and l D ° n t let out aU y°ur breath at any time, 
o keep your support firm, (Continued on Page 720) 



at C thTslow tempo of an adagio waltz. Take time to make it expressive. Grade 4. JOSEPH M. HOPKINS 

Moderato legato (J = 138) 

Copyright 1047 by Theodore Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 


The theme of the Song of the North was written while the composer was in a bark on a Norwegian fjord. It was inspii id by t In- legend of ayouth 
and his sweetheart who, with an old fisherman, went for a boat ride on a fjord. The youth bemoaned the fact that the V 1 k mgs were no more. Then 
the old fisherman pointed to a mirage in the clouds, in which there was a Viking ship, and said , “Behold! The Vikings are still with usl ” 



This, one of Benjamin Godard’s most admired compositions, suggests the coming 
cept in passages marked The passages at the end must be performed with a lush qu 
should be whispered to the keys. Grade 4. 


Tthe dawn It should be played with great tranquillity and smoothness e> . 

ietness, peacefulness, and calm. The arpeggios at the very end 



9 9 9 9 H 9 ^ 9 

- r^r^: ijr^- "E< 

9 9 9 ^9- w 1 





This composition, which has been unusu 

Andante moderato ( J = 96) 

meditation , 

ally popular, is represented in the Etude by request. Grade d 2 . 




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Copyright 1913 by Theodore Presser Co, 

British Copyright secured 



Tempo I 




- LJ - J - JXXJ " , . „ nrt which will have a wide appeal. Play the middle Section with 

The ever melodic Frank Grey has written a very ingratiating- and expressive \ 




l A ^ 


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The love of the highways and the byways is expressed in thi 
i 4- Viqc unusual mnstr.A.1 content. 

nostalgic composition. 

JQ1 „ , , 

The name, translated, means “the joy of wandering.’ Developed 



Copyright 1947 by Theodore Presser Co. 



the etude 

Edited by Eugene Gruenberg 






— f*- 

3 a 

= - is .21 


A str. 

m - 



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8 \>t 

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r f 

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4 ru_4 

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Copyright MCMXX by Oliver Ditson Company 

#5 ^ 

-9 T5* 




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STAR DIVINE Words and Music b v 


International Copyright secured 



705 _ 


Allegro moderato (J= 92 ) 






tfr rfh 

-r — — 


J non legato 


r lad 


u r - r-tq 

< — 




5 a 




Copyright 1945 by Theodore Presser Co. 







British Copyright secured 

Arr. by Ada Richter 

Copyright 1939 by Theodore Presser Co 

British Copyright secured 

Allegro moderato (J= 92) 




Arr. by Ruth Bampton 







Arr. by Ada Richter 

2 1 „ 

saw three ships come sai l - ing in, On 

Christ -mas day, on 

: h J— ^ 

# w 

Christ-mas day, I 

5 == 

8 “ 


^=£i l=p 

saw three ships come 

sail - mg in , _ 

o 5 f 

Christ-mas Day in the 

morn - ing. 

2 5 

December i9',7 


Grade 1|. 




Arr - by Ada Richte,. 

Copyright 1946 by, Theodore Presser Co. 

Grade 2. 

Allegro (J = 144) 


JL 3 O 

r - 4 3 

British Copyright secured 


4 3 

Copyright 1946 by Theodore Presser Co. 

7 08 

British Copyright secured 


Grade l|. 


4 3 2 1 3 4 3 2 3 1 1 8 3 2 1 _5 



Copyright 1945 by Theodore Presser Co. 

British Copyright secured 


Grade 2£. 


Allegro vivace J= 108) 


bobbs Travis 

a tempo 
l 5 4 ^ 

Copyright MCMXLVII by Oliver Ditson Company 
710 1 3 

International Copyright secured 


James Francis Cooke 

Guy Maier 

Harold Berkley 


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December, 1947 



/l 1 



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THIS WAY TO MUSIC by Hazel Cobb 75 

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Three BEETHOVEN SONATAS Newly Edited with Critical Annotations 



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then followed by an authentic English translation. 
All are given in the same key as in the vocal 
score of the opera. 

Price, $2.00 Each 





Theodore Presser 


Edited by W. J. Henderson 
Possibly no class of singer requires a more ex- 
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on improved tone, due to 
exclusive, airflow interior. 

America’s Great Peace 

( Continued from Page 667) 

in the company of Thomas B. Allen, 
Newark caterer, visiting the great con- 
tinental capitals and taking in “every 
cathedral ever built.” There he heard 
world-famous choirs. 

Organizes Orpheus Club 

After his return, his enthusiasm for 
male choruses culminated in the forma- 
tion, at his home at 26 Franklin street, 
of the Orpheus Club. The group, founded 
in 1889, became a prime social and artistic 
feature of the city’s life. The Club’s con- 
certs were subscription affairs. Tickets 
were limited and eagerly sought at the 
then substantial rate of ten dollars for 
four seats to each of the three concerts 
in the season. The audience was in full 
dress and the chorus, numbering about 
forty, represented Newark’s leading fam- 
ilies. The singers did full justice to their 
eminence. Club officials later admitted 
that Joseph M. Byrne, Sr., “a fine figure 
of a man,” usually led the group onto the 
stage “because he made such an excel- 
' lent impression.” After the applause for 
the choir subsided, Ward came from the 




OF MUSIC CLUBS has announced its 
tenth annual State Composition Contest. 
The awards are for compositions in three 
different classifications: Class I, Solo for 
Voice with Piano Accompaniment; Class 
II, Trio for Women’s Voices; Class III, 
Concerto for Piano and Strings. The prize 
is fifty dollars in each of Jhe first two 
classes, with a hundred dollar award in 
Class III. The closing date is February 15, 
1948, and all details may be secured by 
writing to Mrs. Thomas Hunter Johnson, 
Chairman, 407 Bellevue-Stratford, Phila- 
delphia 2, Pennsylvania. 

MONMOUTH COLLEGE offers a prize 
of one hundred dollars for the best setting 
of a prescribed metrical version of Psalm 
95 in four-voice harmony for congrega- 
tional singing. The competition is open to 
all composers; and the closing date is 
February 29, 1948. The details -may be 
secured by writing to Thomas H. Hamil- 
ton, Monmouth College, Monmouth, Illi- 
nois. Clair Leonard, professor of music 
at Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New 
York, is the winner of the 1947 Psalm 
tune competition. 

A PRIZE of $ 1 , 000.00 is offered by Robert 
Merrill for the best new one-act opera in 
English in which the baritone wins the 

(.Continued on Page 714) 

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The Pianist’s Page 

(Continued from Page 676) 

■venire our students to use them.” 

t wish I had said that half as well as 
Mr Krongard! ... One misunderstand- 
7 I’d like to correct; I have never 
^Hvised practicing steadily on a piece 
til it is “perfect” or even playable. Any 
Alible teacher knows that saturation 
nnints — muscular and mental— vary 
crreatly. One student will be satiated in 
t week another will practice a piece en- 
thusiastically and profitably for a month. 
The lay-off and restudy periods must be 
carefully planned if improvement is to 
be assured. That word “perfection” is 
very misleading. We are only too happy 
when our students achieve correct notes, 
good rhythm, passable pedaling, appro- 
priate tonal approach, musical phrasing, 
and adequate projection of the composer’s 
intention. That, Fellow Teachers, is 
quite “perfect” enough for us, isn’t it? 

Mr. Krongard’s letter finishes with 
some sfee comment: “In the hands of a 
good teacher, many fugitives from scales, 
studies, and arduous practice wind up as 
record collectors, serious radio listeners, 
and concert goers. Musical growth is pos- 
sible even if instrumental finesse is not. 
It comes back to the old theme— good 
teaching. . . . The capable teacher knows 
what to experiment with, what to accept, 
what to reject. He must have at hjs finger 
tips many technics, some old, some new, 
some a mixture of the two.” 

To Mr. Krongard our sincere thanks 
for this wind-up of our discussion of 
music teaching standards. ... I had no 
idea that the United States contained 
such an army of militantly intelligent 
music teachers. ... All of us are grateful 
for their helpful contributions. 

wings to the podium, his short, stocky 
figure moving calmly through the decor- 
ous clatter. William Wallace Canon, one- 
time baritone in the choir, pictures Ward 
as a reserved, dignified musician and 
leader. He says, “Those of us who knew 
him well always spoke of him as Sam 
Ward, but invariably we addressed him 
as Mr. Ward. There was a quiet dignity 
about him that made people courteous 
at all times. When he held rehearsals 
with the Club, everyone was ever alert tq 
catch his ideas of interpretation and at 
concerts his words were, ‘Watch me, 
gentlemen.’ Needless to say, it was a com- 
mand duly heeded.” 

Ward was forced to give up leading the 
chorus' in May, 1902, because of ill health. 
He died September 28, 1903. 

The melody, which has not brought 
him fame, was about the sixtieth used 
with Miss Bates’ poem. The combina- 
tion gained in public favor during the 
years of the First World War, becoming 
a high favorite among soldiers in over- 
seas encampments. They brought it home, 
raised it to peak popularity among the . 
public, who in the 1920s failed in an 
effort to have it made the national 
anthem. But the song, product of a man 
perhaps typical of His time, is a universal 

The World of Music 

* (Continued from Page 661) 

Opera Association and former music 
critic, died October 25, in New York City. 
He was seventy-seven years old. An ex- 
tremely modest and methodical man, his 
tremendously important work was carried 
on in such an unobtrusive manner, that 
he remained virtually" unknown to most 
of the concert and opera devotees. In his 
earlier years, he served as music critic 
on various New York newspapers. 


because deep fold bellows 
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a zephyr. .. and fast, too I 



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Keep It Natural 

(Continued, from Page 670) 

is the invitation to substitute for the so- 
prano of one of New York’s leading 
Protestant churches when that fine singer 
goes on her vacation. I wouldn’t let any 
engagements of my own interfere with 
that! It is both a pleasure and a disci- 
pline to me, and it does me much good. -I 
strongly advise other young singers to 
get ail the group, or ensemble, experience 
they can. if a chance in a good, musically 
■ worthy chorus comes your way, jump at 
it! Don’t be ashamed of being ‘just in a 
I chorus.’ 

"Sooner or later, we must talk about 
radio work, too. The question most fre- 
quently put to me is whether or not ra- 
dio work really changes your style of 
singing. The answer is, emphatically no! 
Radio is receptive to the best singing 
only. There is absolutely no difference 
between emission before a microphone 
and emission on a stage, if there is, 

. something’s wrong with that emission/ 
There are differences in the adjustments 
of dynamics (‘blasting’ and ‘peaking’ of 
fortissimo hotes, especially in the upper 
register) , but that is not at all a problem 
for the singer, it is an engineering prob- 
lem, and must be solved by the gentle- 
men at the controls. If they know what 
they are about, they will solve it by the 
distance at which the singer stands from 
the ‘mike ’ — never in terms of vocal dis- 
tortions. If ever I were asked to change 
my vocal production because of micro- 
phone problems, I should refuse— and 
think myself lucky to get out of such a 
studio! Interpretative styles (particularly 
among the nonclassic singers) are a very 
different thing; they have to do with line, 
rhythms, and so on. But the sound essen- 
tials of vocal production do not, and 
should not, vary with radio. The chief 
thing to remember about singing— 
whether it takes place in a studio, on a 
stage, or before a microphone— is to keep 
it natural!” 

I Intelligent Care of the 
[ Singing Voice 

(.Continued from Page 679) 

tone from cracking. But distortion of the 
vowel sound is not the answer. Thinking 
. of cover’ simply as a protection against 
tonal cracking, one learns first to dis- 
cover one’s own best focus for each up- 
per tone and, in second place, to darken 
the vowel just enough to keep the tone 
free and pure. The upper tones should 
come forth with the same freedom and 
ease as the lower tones. 

“In the final analysis, then, the care of 
the voice depends upon its use-and its 
use depends upon the sort of habits one 
forms with the first tones sung. There is 
no ‘trick’ about learning short-cuts to 
correct singing; no ‘effect’ that can pro- I 
tect a voice, as a sort of outside issue, I 
that has nothing to do with singing 
habits. If a voice ,is slowly and correctly 
eveloped, its care should offer no prob- 
lem. If it is not so developed. . . . Ah, then 
begin the sad stories of difficulties and 
accidents in mid-career. 

To sum it up, then, it seems to me that 
voice care begins with an understanding 
of correct breathing. Look at a picture of 
the diaphragm; understand what it is, 

where it lies, how it functions. Then ob- 
serve for yourself what sort of pressure 
must be exerted on it, to assure the freest, 
most extended, most natural lung ca- 
pacity. Be alert to your own sensations 
while singing, and aware of the exact 
causes that produce them. Be perfectly 
clear in your own mind as to what tone 
support really means. Sing with your 
mind as well as with your voice, and put 
your observations to work for you. If you 
sing in some ‘special’ way — with an extra- 
relaxed jaw, or with any other kind of 
‘effect’ — be sure you know why you do it, 
and what it does for you. Don’t imitate 
the externals of someone else’s method, 
no matter how greatly you admire him; 
the chances are that his own highly spe- 
cialized techniques, developed to serve 
his needs, may be quite useless for your 
needs. The fewer ‘devices’ you use, the 
better. For singing is a natural, physical 
function; it develops best under the most 
natural conditions. By observing complete 
naturalness in each step of vocal emis- 
sion, one finds that he keeps his voice 
in that state of vigor which is its best 

The World of Music 

( Continued from Page 713) 

girl. The only rules governing the contest 
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Voice Questions 


Translation of a Letter in Spanish, from 

Q- — I have studied voice for five years. Un- 
fortunately my first teacher did not under- 
stand how to equalize the registers and I 
acquired many defects which, my present 
teacher, with whom I have studied for three 
years, has entirely corrected. This gentleman 
has equalized the registers perfectly, has in- 
creased the volume and has improved the 
timber of my voice. I have acquired a good 
technique and an enviable agility. My voice 
has become a lyric o spinto (tenor). I have 
been studying the aria Salut demeure from 
“Faust,” for my teacher feels that I must in- 
crease my repertoire. I also am studying 
piano, solfege, theory, harmony, many operas, 
and songs, ( Musica de camera). At the mo- 
ment I am singing songs originally written 
for women, Voi che sapete and Alleluia by 
Mozart and Chanson Indoue by Rimsky-Kor- 
sakoff, to improve my vocal agility and to 
prepare for a recital. My range is 

The low notes are of great volume and have 
the quality of a baritone (Abaritonadas ) . 
There is one thing that bothers me. When I 
am singing loudly and with great force (con 
una gran potencia) and am working up to a 
climax, I do not have sufficient air in my 
lungs to achieve it ( mantenerla ) . Do you 
think that the capacity of my lungs is in- 
sufficient, so that I cannot hold enough air 
for a . long, loud phrase? Do you think it 
would be wise for me to consult a physician 
or a physical culturist, to examine my lungs? 
Or what else should I do? — M. K. 

A. It was unfortunate that your first teach- 
ers were unskillful and that you developed so 
many bad habits under their guidance. How- 
ever, it is good that your present one has 
ironed out these defects of production and 
that you now possess a light tenor voice 
( lirico spinto) of good quality, of long range, 
and considerable agility. Why do you sing 
songs originally written for women? You 
might be subjected to considerable criticism 
if you sang them in public. There are many 
songs written for the tenor voice, which re- 
quire equal speed of production and light- 
ness of diction. Please look at II mio tesora 
from Mozart’s “Don Giovanni,” Rossini’s La 
Danza, or some of the songs of Bach and 
Handel. Without seeing, hearing and examin- 
ing you, it would be foolish for us to attempt 
to tell you what, if anything, is at the root of 
your trouble. Are you singing too loudly? Do 
you force your tone in attempting to make the 
tremendous climaxes that seem to be so dear 
to you? The fact that your lower tones are 
like those of a baritone and very strong, and 
that you try to produce the higher ones with 
the same amount of force, seems to suggest 
it Be careful or you may hurt your voice. 
Puebla is only a short distance from Mexico 
City, where there is much fine music and 
many good operatic performances. Attend sev- 
eral of them and when you hear a tenor 
singer whose voice you admire, especially if it 
somewhat resembles your own, have one or 
two auditions with him, and ask him for his 
advice and help. It will cost you some time 
and money, but it will be well worth it. 
2 .— Consult both a physician and a physical 
culturist, if you feel that their opinions might 
bring you more peace of mind. 

A Confused Young Student ., , 

Q I am a music major in a university and 
my' voice is a high soprano. I took lessons 
irom a teacher who stressed singing with full, 
melodious, and rich tones. He said singing 
should be spontaneous and free , and rarely 
mentioned how the tone should be produced. 
Now 1 am taking from another teacher who 
criticizes my production severely. Criticisms: 
1 Changing production from head to throat. 
2. Surcharging lower notes with excess tone. 
3 Wabbling of pitch on single tones. 4. Fix- 
ing each tone separately. 5. Incorrect placing 
of tongue. Therefore, he has me working on 
placement of tone and I am quite confused. 
He stresses the production of all tones with 
one placement, so that the singer can go up 

and down the scale within his range, without 
a break. The placement is in the nose and 
cheek bones with the tongue flat. Is he right? 
Do you think production of tone should be so 
strongly stressed? As a result I am uncertain 
and uneasy. — R. B. 

A. Every tone in the scale is the result of 
the action of the expired breath upon the 
vocal chords. In that sense they may be said 
to be all produced alike, but in that sense 
only. There are tremendous differences in the 
tension of the vocal chords, and the manner 
in which this initial (fundamental) tone is 
reinforced and its quality finally determined 
by co-vibration in the resonance chambers. 
Then there is the control of the breath to be 
considered, so that the proper amount of 
pressure shall be used (neither too much nor 
too little) in order that the tone shall sound 
as it was designed to sound, without forcing, 
breathiness, trembling, or weakness. All the 
muscles above the larynx, tongue, throat mus- 
cles, palatal arch, lip, and the jaw should 
remain free and movable, or the tone will be 
poor and the enunciation indistinct and la- 
bored. If this is what you mean by the ex- 
pressions, tone placement, and tone produc- 
tion, which you seem to use interchangeably, 
it is a life study and one never can be too 
careful about it nor think about it too much. 

A sense of vibration can often be felt in the 
mouth, nose, and head cavities as Lille Leh- 
man, Fillebrown, and some of the modern 
scientific writers point out. However, this 
sense of vibration occurs naturally when there 
is no muscular tension. Always remember 
that the vibrating air which we call tone can- 
not be projected here and there into the 
cavities of the mouth, nose, and head, as one 
squirts water out of a hose pipe. Thousands 
of books have been written analyzing the 
physical actions (processes) which produce 
the singing voice, myriads of singing teachers 
are engaged in the difficult task of explaining 
them to their pupils; ten thousand singers are 
demonstrating them in opera, concert, church, 
and over the air, each from his own personal 
point of view. Read these books if you are 
confused, take lessons from these teachers, 
listen to all the good singers you can hear, 
and learn from them. If you have voice, talent, 
brains, character, and perseverance, you will 
come out all right. 

Again the Young Singer of High School Age 

Q. I am a boy sixteen years old, who loves 
singing very much. My parents are not in- 
terested in opera and have planned another 
career for me. I have never taken lessons, yet 
my range is from Middle-C to the third A 
below Middle-C. When I enter college I plan 
to take lessons, or does age matter in singing 
simple songs? Is there any advice that you 
can offer so that I will not injure my voice. 

—E. V. W. 

A. If you decide to study, the first and 
most essential thing is to find a teacher who 
understands the use of the voice and has the 
gift of imparting his knowledge to others. He 
should be an honest man with good judgment, 
so that he will neither inflate your ego with 
exaggerated praise, nor discourage you with 
severe and unjust criticism. As you are so 
young he should bring you along slowly and 
carefully, explaining each step in your prog- 
ress as it occurs, and the reason for exercise 
as it is prescribed for you. He should not 
make you sing too long at a time, too high, 
too low, nor too loud. Nevertheless, each tone 
that you sing must be full and firm, not weak, 
wobbly, or emasculated. He should teach you 
how to control your breathing, especially dur- 
ing expiration, and how to form vowel and 
consonant sounds, easily and comfortably, 
without undue effort of the muscles of the 
throat, tongue, lips, palatal arch or jaw. These 
are the fundamental rudiments of the art of 
singing. If you can find such a man, take 
lessons from him and sincerely try to follow 
his advice and the precepts that he teaches. 

2. If you are normally healthy and not un- 
dersized and weak, you are old enough to 
sing. However, you are not old enough to 
decide alone just what you are going to choose 
for a profession. You have three or four years 
of work at the usual scholastic studies before 
you need to make this decision. 



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Chi Va Piano, Va Lontano 

(.Continued from Page 681) 

“To one whose individuality is marred 
by carelessness let me recommend very 
slow playing, with the most minute at- 
tention to detail. Technically speaking, 
Czerny and Bach are of great value in 
correcting carelessness. In Czerny the 
musical structure of the compositions is 
so clearly and optnly outlined that any 
error is easily detected, while in Bach 
the structure is so close and compact 
that it is difficult to make an error with- 
out interrupting the movement of some 
other voice that will reveal the error. 
The main consideration, however, is per- 
sonal carelessness, and it makes little 
difference what the study is, so long as 
the student himself takes great pains 
to see that he is right, and exactly 
right, before he attempts to go ahead. 
Most musicians, however, would say 
that Bach was the one great stone upon 
which our higher technical structure 
must firmly stand.” 

Silent Night, Holy Night! 

(Continued from Page 666) 

carol resound under the picture of the 
man who wrote it. Later, when this pic- 
ture was brought outside by the guardian, 
I managed to get a not-so-good repro- 
duction, which, however, certainly shows 
the gentle, kindly nature of the man to 
whom the world is so greatly indebted 
The church (St. Nicholas), which we 
then entered, is one of the most beauti- 
fully kept that I have ever seen, even in 
that country of beautiful churches. The 
altar extended from floor to roof and was 
covered with cut flowers, gifts, and grow- 
ing flowers in pots. Unfortunately, it was 
again impossible to obtain anything but 
a rather unsatisfactory snapshot. 

Entering the church we knelt while the 
choir, now fully rehearsed and led by 
several of the leading artists from the 
opera at Salzburg, sang the carol Silent 
Night to the accompaniment of a guitar 
because it is known that on the first 
Lhnstmas Eve it was ever sung in Arns- 
dorf, something went wrong with the or- 
gan, and Franz Gruber came to the rescue 
with his guitar, and this was the sole ac- 
companiment that mounted with the 
voices to the listening (and one must be- 
lieve approving) angels! 

It was all very beautiful and very stir- 

frifri the l0V6ly VOice of In S rid Sieg- 
in “Tha A/r SeaS ° n ’ S discovery a s Susannah 
m The Marriage of Figaro” at Salzburg 

WMds 6 SOl °’ an<1 the Ch0ir echoed the ’ 

1 asked ’ ,,Wha t is going 
to be done about the huge laurel wreath 
which we have brought with u s? — (S 
That is going to the little Memorial 

F h hape1 ’ i WaS the reply; because, after all 
the carol was not sung for thp firef +• ’ 

in the .ill*. cnu«rfpX e .frS 
thought good enough!) but “tried out 
so to speak, in a tiny, church about ’ 
quarter of a mile away, on the sloping 

This little chapel had since been a* 
stroyed by to b„t the 



an extremely lovely little Memorial nu 
there in 1937. Chapy 

So thither we went with the 
and at last, after a rather corner 68,111 ’ 
trip, we stood on the very spo t wheA^ 
carol was first sung on December 24 nT e 
one hundred and twenty-nine y ea ’ l 18, 
fore. jcars be- 

Equal Honors 

Two beautiful, modern stained 
windows divide honors equally w Ss 
the two friends, for onesZ^ 
Gruber, with a line of the music nz 
his guitar, and the other the pries? tT ng 
Mohr, pen in hand, writing the words’ 18 
The chapel is so tiny that it contain 
just these windows and the altar 
gether with a visitor’s book for signatmT 
which has long since been filled f l! 
asked if I would start a new one tat 
copy book, but I preferred to write Jt 
name on the back of the cover of thp 
onginai and so huddle with those others 
who had visited this spot and paid tribute 
to the composers of the carol 
We put the wreath in front of the altar 
and then went out again into the autumn 
sunshine; all was very peaceful! It was 
indeed as “Silent” and -Holy” as on anv 
Christmas Eve. ny 

At the bottom of the pasture land 
which sloped down from the chapel a 
tiny, busy stream ran; on the other side 
of the stream the pasture turned up, but 
it was then called Germany. The stream 
seemed to mark an invisible division be- 
tween good and bad, liberated and con- 
quered country. 

But the music of the carol, fortunate- 
ly, knew no such boundary, and as the 
lovely old tune was sung, it mounted 
and spread, as it always does, reaching 
good and bad alike, falling on fertile and 
stony ground, touching or leaving un- 
touched hearts with its message, fulfilling 
the injunction, “Let all grow together ’til 
the harvest.” 

That is all I could learn at Arnsdorf 
about the composer of Silent Night, Holy 

A Gesture of Friendship 

Back in Salzburg (which always claims 
the carol as peculiarly, its own, and where 
each Christmas Eve at midnight it is al- 
ways sung to an accompaniment of trum- 
pets placed high up on the old Fortress) 
I was fortunate to discover a little more, 
for in the great cathedral library, with 
its piles of music, some of priceless value, 
where Mozart’s father, the cathedral or- 
ganist, came every day, very often bring- 
ing little Wolfgang with him, we came 
across a thick sheet of yellow school room 
paper, with music lines .drawn, and on 
them a hymn written, the outside sheet 
announcing in his own handwriting that 
the hymn was written by Franz Gruber. 

Before I could stop him, my generous 
friend, Professor Messner, cut out this 
precious autograph for my collection. 
Very gratefully I took it and it is now 
fastened to the picture of Franz Gruber 
in my music room. 

Still hoping to find perhaps a few more 
facts, I have searched through my own 
music library, but strangely enough, 
neither Grove’s nor Black’s (two great 
music dictionaries), mention Franz Gru- 
ber! Although there are in Salzburg a 
few more hymns and simple Masses 
written by him, it may be said, with a 
nearness to truth, that he did actually 
compose Just this, one lovely tune and 
nothing else. 

It was, and is, enough! 


Organ md Choih Questions 


„ sunaest a list of stops for a two Swell: Stopped Diapason 8’, Salicional 8', 

« ■ Z and a three manual organ? The Flute 4'. 

manual i ar qe one, having a seating ea- Pedal: Bourdon 16'. 

church ning hundre d. We have a Couplers: Swell to Great, Great to Pedal, 

padty f j, p 0ssib [ e we wish to use the Swell to Pedal. , 

large c • thou gh the organ will probably To bring the number of speaking stops from 
present pp, ided aTld duplexed, because seven (as above) to fifteen, we suggest adding 

TuSted space- A list of present stops is en- the following: 

, tLw it be changed from the old type Great: Flute d’Amour 4', Octave 4'. 

closed. ,. 9 t Swell: Bourdon 16', Violin Diapason 8', 

to electric Aeoline 8', Harmonic Flute 4', Violina 4'. 

a It will be perfectly all right to use your Pedal: Gedeckt 16'. 
it nines and we believe the transfer of 

present pip ■ Great wou ld be an improve- Q- Kindly suggest literature on how to play 
ibe Gamod 1 absolutely necessary. We a one-manual reed organ. I would appreciate 

the following additions to the Great: a list of pieces suitable for reed organs for 
Trumpet. Octave 4'. To the Swell you might church use.- B. E. LB. 

add a Violin Diapason 8 , Vo'X Cch este , A , (The Reed 0rgan Method,” by Landon, 

Violina 4'. and to the _ Peda 1 ‘ will give all the information desired regarding 

and Gedeckt 8' (or Gedeckt 16' and Mute 8 ). ^ playing ^ instrument; lt may be had 

, . from the publishers of The Etdde. 

q. We have a reed organ which we would 

like to put into playing condition. Since we q The Young Adult Class of our church is 
know very little about these instruments we en deavoring to raise money for a new church 
would appreciate any information you can organ At present we have a little over $1,000.00. 
give us about the tuning, action of the stops, wou i a appreciate any information on a 

and so forth, or the names of any books or good buy, the cost, durability, and the best 
pamphlets that would be helpful, and where fc . nc! (g buy Any in f orma ti 0 n as to number of 
they may be obtained. M. B. stops would help us. — M. B. I. 

A. "The Reed Organ Method by Landon a. The Exude does not recommend individual 
has two introductory chapters giv g - flrmSj but we are sending you a list of reputable 

mation regarding the stops of the reed org , builders with whom we suggest you 

and something of its mechanical action. We ^gSpoucl. Any of them wiU be g i ad to con- 
believe this book will help you to some ex 0 f instrument 

tent. There is a book by Fisher en .tied Piano ™ w.m you* u|ar Memento. build . 

Tuning. Regulating and Repairing, which also and on, and will quote prices accord- 

has a chapter on the reed organ, but , unfor- Without information as to the size of the 

tunately the book is out of print _ at the pub- it is difficult to suggest proper 

lishers. It is possible that a library in your iflcations thou gh the following for a two- 

vicinity would have a copy to wm “ J 0 " manua i organ with fifteen speaking stops 
could refer. Tuning the reeds is a very delicate manual^ ^ guide; 

operation, and we do not recommend under- GRE AT: Open Diapason 8' 

taking this except by someone properly quail- Melodia 8 ' 

fled. Very often, however, the reeds simply Dulciana 8' 

need cleaning, and this may be done by re- Flute d'Amour 4' 

moving them by a hook contrivance usually Octave 4 ' 

supplied with the organ, and blowing out any SWEL L: Bourdon 48 ' 

dirt or dust, or using a very fine soft brush, violin Diapason 8 ’ 

but these should be handled very carefully. Salicional 8', 

. . Stopped Diapason 8 ' 

Q. Would you tell me something about a Aeoline 8 ' 

• reed organ— at least I think it is a reed organ; Harmonic Flute 4 ' 

it has one keyboard, pumps with the feet ana violina 4 

has levers at knees to crescendo the tone. The pvnAL: Bourdon 48 

stops are (named). What are these tuned to, Gedeckt 48 

and do they get out of tune? Is music written 

for an organ like this. Could it. be used with Recently I have been playing a reed 

a piano tuned to 440? Is music obtainable for 0 small Anglican Church. As I have 

this instrument and piano together.— C. Mco. ^ 1 played the piano, I find the organ 

tairlv hard to master, especially the stops. Fir 
A. The instrument you describe is a reed 1 V s and responses 1 U se nearly all the 
organ. The best way to check on the pitch a but for the creed and Lord’s Prayer I 

would be to borrow a 440 tuning fork or pitch P ■ Dulcet and Dulciana. Is that 

pipe, and check it with the organ. We under- ct9 y 

stand such organs made during recent years • , suggest the names and prices of 

are tuned to 440, but the old reed organs, , p boofcs for voluntaries. I have been 

more than twenty years old, are tuned to con- ome numbers from The Etude such as 

cert pitch, or about half a tone higher than Prayer" October, (1944) and “ Inter- 

440 . There are many books and considerable (February, 1945); also some of Bach 

sheet music written for reed organs, and the, , , wou i d not want anything too 

publishers of The Etude will send you infor- g R 

mation separately along these lines. Most of l u l 

the music written for reed organ (or har- introduction and preliminary chap- 

monium) and piano is of foreign publication, ■ ... Reed Organ Method will help 

and stocks are limited just now. although ^^tter understanding of the reed 

some few things are available. If the pitch of y an and it contains a chapter explaining 
the reed organ in question corresponds with ° ® book may be obtained from the 

your piano, it will be possible to play the 1 ' - f The Etude . The guiding principle 

instruments together, but not otherwise. The P p{ various stops for certain parts 

tuning of the organ could not. very well, be Ang ii ca n service should be the sense of 

changed, nor is such an organ likely to get . d B In many ReS ponses only a moderate 
out of tune, except for defective tones caused organ should be used, and there 

by dust or dirt in the reeds. arts of the Creed which call for a fairly 

„ enliri orean background. Hymns of course 

Q- We are planning to build an organ in th0 ugh for congregational singing plenty 

our home. Please send me a list of pipes y ',,. me i s we li, except for contrasting ef- 
ordinarily required for such an organ, and w here the text suggests quietness. 

where can I obtain them?— O. B. suggest the following books, which may 

. . .. . he obtained from the publishers of The Etude: 

A. A home organ will of necessity be of b and Modern Gems for the Reed 

small dimensions, and we therefore suggest L m urrav ’ s One Hundred Voluntaries,” 
the following as the smallest practical set-up. , ® 1 Tw0 stafl Organ Book," “Gems of 

ciana^L ° P6n Diapason 8 ’’ Melodia 8 ' Masterpieces fo* the Organ." 

nc . r „ nr "MUSIC STUDY 



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The Hammond Organ has been moved. It has long been used and 
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Hammond Organ 




The Violinist’s Forum 

( Continued from Page 685) 

belief that it improves their finger-grip, lower strings with strength. Ex C ent 
Actually the grip is weakened, particu- the playing of a few rare and com v 
larly the grip of the fourth finger. A cated four-part chords, the left 
few moments of observation should con- should remain in a straight line WriSf; 
vince anyone that a bulging wrist pulls the forearm in at least the first five 
the fourth finger knuckle away from the tions. A player with a long thumh P ° Si ' 
fingerboard, making it increasingly diffi- maintain this shaping even up to tvf 1 
cult for the finger to reach the three seventh position. 


Young People In Music 

( Continued from Page 687) 


Atwaun/ JAuMa, 3 


More Musicians use Armour Music 
Strings than any other brand 

The Quality Control that creates the perfec- 
tion of Armour Strings begins with the choice 
of lambs. Only lambs grown on finest range- 
land contain the top-quality gut needed to 
produce top-quality strings. Armour Buyers 
separate these Iambs into groups, according 
to grade, and the finest Iambs Armour re- 
ceives produce the gut for Armour Strings. 

The perfection of Armour Strings is the 
result of six important steps: (1) Getting 
finest raw materials; (2) Protecting quality 
by constant refrigeration; (3) Controlling 
quality by laboratory tests; (4) Precision 
splitting of gut; (5) An exclusive Armour 
Tanning process; (6) Polishing to exact di- 
mension desired. When you specify Armour 
Strings, you know you are getting the best 
because no other manufacturer duplicates 
the Armour process of perfecting strings. 

Quality Controlled 

to point an entrance cue. But — when, 
where, how, and why to make these ges- 
tures is a different matter! 

“To make proper use of his baton tech- 
nic, the aspiring conductor must be thor- 
oughly conversant with harmony; he 
must know how— -indeed, he must make 
himself know how — to read figured basses, 
to read scores as readily as he reads his 
newspaper; he must know all the clefs; 
he must be able to transpose at sight; 
he must have, and must cultivate an ab- 
solutely true ear, both for pitch and for 
details of color. He must be thoroughly 
familiar with all styles and ‘schools’ and 
types of music; and by this familiarity 
I mean, not the mere hearing and recog- 
nizing of them, but the fullest apprecia- 
tion of their meaning, their mood, their 
style. And all this preparation is quite 
valueless if the young student does not 
use it to build up Ms own tonal concep- 
tions. People ask me if the conductor 
does not ‘get a thrill’ out of hearing his 
orchestra make the music ‘sound.’ Actu- 
ally, too often he does not! He goes to 
his first rehearsal with the music ‘sound- 
ing in his mind — and, if his standards 
are high, he seldom will be satisfied with 
the audible result! This building of an 
inner conception and the subsequent 
drawing it out from the players is the 
soul of conducting. Without it, sheer study 
is rather pointless. Still, there must be 
study! The conductor should know how 
to play all the instruments in the or- 


chestra even if he does not master them 
Most helpful, though, is a £ 0 roT h 
knowledge of the piano which TS 
only instrument to provide working f ac 
ities in harmony as well as melody last 
in order, then, the conductor needs ex 
perience. This he can make for himself 
by working with amateur orchestras 
choirs, choral groups— any material that 
allows him to draw an inner conception 
out of cooperating human material And 
the worse they are, the better for him. 

The earnest musician need not de- 
pend, upon assigned ‘lessons’ in order to 
develop himself. Indeed, much pleasure 
can be found in inventing drills for one- 
self. When I was fifteen, and preparing 
myself for the Royal College examina- 
tion, I hit upon a splendid and amusing 
thing during my summer holiday. I went 
through the Hymn Book and transposed 
each hymn into six different keys I did 
it sheerly for the fun of it, and it was 
fun. At first, the task was rather over- 
whelming but before I was half-way 
through, I found myself able to trans- 
pose at sight. Self-invented, self-imposed 
drills of this sort are exceedingly useful. . 
I heartily recommend them! I recom- ’ 
mend, also, that music teaching be re- 
organized so that the professional and 
the amateur are differentiated— that ev- 
eryone is given a chance to know good 
music— but that a special apprenticesMp 
in artistry is reserved for those who 
really deserve it.” 


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■ whole process is so delicate and daneer- 

TnerX ” n0t d * 

It would seem .a worthy project for all 
public school music supervisors, and 
many violin teachers who quite naturally 
haven t had the opportunity to delve into 

to find ent t fiC Part ° f Violin atJ j u stment, 

to find out as much as possible about this 
subject. It is our belief that many pupils 

would find greater inspiration an d en- 
couragement if their violins were property 
adjusted. It would be grossly unfair for 
a child to practice on a piano badly out 
of tune or a wind instrument with loose 
Sr ch made Pr0Per donation to! 

At best, a violin is a temperamental 
sound-producing device. cCalF and 
temperature affect any instrument great 
ly, but while all players must accept this 
there is no need to have added to variable 
atmospheric conditions the dorariSS 
faulty physical adjustments with which 
so many violins are afflicted 

What Gives a Violin Tone? 

( Continued from Page 672) 

For a period after World War I the 
violin somehow lost out in popularity 
among young students, who found it eas- 
ier to play a saxophone, or some of the 
other reed and wind instruments. But of 
late, the violin is coming back into its 
own, and it is very gratifying to older 
lovers of the instrument to see children 
and grownups alike showing new interest, 
taking lessons, and sharpening their ap- 
preciation of fine playing by attending 
concerts of famous artists and listening 
to their records and radio performances. 

Perhaps our subject seems of Jess than 
gigantic proportions to those who have 
never tried to play upon a violin, but we 
assure them that no group is more fussy 
about the exact and correct adjustment 
of their instruments than the finest 
artists. If, with their skill and highly 
eveloped talent as players, minute ad- 
justments are important to their playing, 
jt seems only fair that the beginners at 
east have no unnecessary hurdles to 


Violin Questions 


xr filiations u ill he answered in THE ETUDE unless accompanied by the full name 
and address of the inquirer. Only initials, or pseudonym given, will be published. 

Keeping ^^"'“ndianf — There is no single 
„ “wor violinists that is quite comparable to 
.u -rzerny School o£ Velocity" tor pianists, 
the Czerny it , s the "Schradieck 

The technics.” If you want a 

fox of exercises that will keep you violin- 
vHcailv with a minimum of practice, I 

‘ rirnmmend my "Basic Violin Technique, 
which may be obtained through the publish- 
ers of The Etude. 

Ap W pr t a M. 9 5ew ""-There is nothing I 
can tell you about your violin except what 
vou tell me— that it has what purports to be a 
Stradivarius label. But there are probably 
st ”f hundreds of thousands of violins in the 
world all of them bearing a similar label and 
Sh none of which Stradivarius had any- 
to do. About six hundred of his violins 
known to exist; of the others bearing a 
facsimile of his label, a f«W Ml very good 
instruments, but the vast majority are fac- 
tory-made fiddles of very little value. If you 
think your violin is a good one you should 
have it appraised. 

Violins Made by Ncuner and by Tatter 
H J. F., Indiana. — Mathias Neuner worked 
in Mittenwald, Germany, between J 795 
1830, and was a member of a large family ox 
violin makers and dealers in that town. His 
own instruments are very well made and are 
above the average of the Mittenwald Product. 
They would be worth today between $150 and 
$350. (2) The books presently at my 
make no mention of a maker named UlDricK 
Tatter. When I return to New York I will en- 
quire about him. for my interest is aroused by 
a maker who apparently made the tops of his 
violins from many pieces of wood. 

Left Hand Problems ... 

J. H. M., Ohio.— Thank you for your kind 
remarks about my “Modem Technique of 
Violin Bowing.” I have as yet published no 
work on left-hand technique other than tne 
‘‘Basic Violin Technique.” which you can ob- 
tain from the publishers of The Etude. But if 
you care to look through the back numbers o 
the magazine for the last four years you will 
find many articles, and so forth, devoted to 
left-hand problems. 

Klotz Violin and Hill Bows 
Mrs. B. G., New York. I suggest that you 
take or send your seven-eighth size Klotz vio- 
lin to the Rudolph Wurlitzer Co., 120 West 
42nd Street, New York City. That is, if it is in 
good condition. If it is badly cracked up, I 
don’t think Wurlitzer’s or any other firm 
would be interested in it. What its value may 
be, no one could tell you without seeing the 
instrument. (2) Hill bows are always in de- 
mand, for they are excellently made. You 
should have no trouble getting at least as 
much for your bow as you paid for it. 

Appraisal is Necessary 

Miss G. S., South Carolina. Why don’t you 
send your violin either to Shropshire & Frey, 
119 West 57th Street, or to The Rudolph Wur- 
litzer Co., 120 West 42nd Street, both in New 
York City? For a small fee. either firm would 
give you a detailed and reliable appraisal. As 
for myself, I cannot estimate the value of a 
violin I have never seen. 

Material for Double-stops 

I- B., New York. There is no shortage of 
material for the study of double-stops. The 
Melodious Double-stops,” by Josephine Trott, 
m two books, is excellent. The first book is all 
first-position work; the second book goes into 
the higher positions. Then there is the “Thirty- 
Trine Studies in Double-stops” by Eduard Herr- 
mann, in three books. These, too, are pro- 
gressively arranged, and the third book is 
Quite difficult. Sevcik’s “Preparatory Double- 
stop Studies” and the fourth book of his Op. 1 
are each a “must” for the serious student. 
Further, the first two books of Sevcik’s Op- 1 
contain many exercises in double-stops. If you 
examine these various books for a few min- 

utes you will soon find out which are most 
suitable for the students you have in mind. 

Violin Repairing 

H. B. B., Virginia. I was delighted to hear 
from you. It is a long time since you studied 
with me, but I remember you perfectly. I am 
glad that everything is going so well with you. 
The best book on violin making and repairing 
is “Violin Making, as it Was and Is,” by E. 
Heron-Alien. But the book has been out of 
print for some years and I don’t know whether 
it has been reprinted. An excellent short 
treatise on the subject is to be found in the 
book “How to make Musical Instruments,” by 
L. F. Geiger, published by the Popular Home- 
craft Magazine, 919 North Michigan Avenue, 
Chicago. However, if your violin is a good 
one, I don’t advise you to make the repairs on 
it yourself. It would be much wiser to send it 
to a repairer in Philadelphia or New York. 

Too Old to Study Violin? 

Miss J. A. S., New York. There is nothing 
much I can tell you about your violin without 
seeing the instrument. The label may or may 
not be genuine. There was, I believe, a Gui- 
seppe Guamerius working in Cremona as late 
as 1771, but that is no guarantee that he made 
your violin. It is a favorite name with the 
copyists. (2) You are certainly not too old to 
study the violin, but I don’t advise you to do 
so with any thought of a # professional career. 
To justify that ambition one must have started 
when one was a small child. (3) A beautiful 
quality of tone depends almost entirely on the 
player, the intensity of his desire for that 
quality, and his technical ability to produce 
it. In a month or two there will be an article 
on this subject in The Etude and I think you 
will find it interesting. (4) By all means keep 
up your piano and theory studies; they will 
give you an invaluable background of musical 
understanding. And when you go to college, 
take a course in the History of Music. It will 
mean a lot to you. 


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Excerpt of a letter from Harold Berkley 
8/24/47: • • and while abroad tor 

6 weeks. I had no violin, but exercised on 
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return I found my grip stronger, my finger 
articulation more rapid, and my trill faster 
than when I left this country. The results 
amazed me. . . • 


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The Evolution of 

1 1-1 Samuel R. Warren, organ architect 

Electricity in the Urgan socked with The Austin organ Co IP 

1 marks in The American Organist’ f 

•April 1947, “I wish to heaven the ° T 



( Continued from Page 684) 

claims of comparison with the tradi- 
tional organ. 

In February .1947 there appeared a new 
instrument of this kind based on a simi- 
lar method of sound production. This is 
the Baldwin Electronic. 

About twelve years ago the Baldwin 

heaven the organ 
builders would get down off their hi h 
horses and realize this electronic buxi 
ness is something they can’t just laugh 
off and completely ignore. If they think 
. . . this thing is just a fad . . . they are 
very much mistaken.” Mr. Warren goes 
on to warn the industry that a real effort 

Cm^V«Tn^w"w *» »*“ >° ■» -mmJZ 

scientist, Winston E. Kock, with imagina- ^ rowl £®' ac ® ° f type of imita- 

tion and an idea. He was given a free 
hand to indulge in an intensive research 
which had been given impetus by exten- 
sive study both abroad and in this coun- 
try. Prior to his arrival, Baldwin had 
been engaged in electronic research for 
four years. This young scientist believed 
it was possible and could be made prac- 
tical to produce musical sounds elec- 
trically, and by full control of the over- 

turn by an ever increasing number of 
people.” An editor says, “The electrone 
is here to stay, I hope.” He suggests some 
action on the part of organ builders 
which will furnish adequate competition’ 
This man describes an inspection of an 
electronic organ by himself and two 
eminent organists, which resulted in their 
being convinced that here was an in- 
instrument vastly superior to any similar 

tones to create any kind of a timbre that instrument yet known to us personally. 

should be thought desirable. After near- 
ing the complete achievement of his goal, 
the war brought about a stop to his 
labors. His instrument, practically per- 
fected, wets stored away in a warehouse 
while the factory was converted to the 
manufacture of war material. 

With the end of hostilities, one of the 
first moves the company made was to 
drag out the neglected electronic organ. 

They found that it was essentially un- 
changed in appearance. On attaching the 
loud speaker, connectipg the current, and 
starting to play it, their surprise and de- 
light was unbounded on discovering that 
not only did it respond correctly, with 
the various stops identical in quality, but 
that it was still in tune. — ■ 

The principle of the Baldwin Organ is 

simple enough. By electrical impetus, \\ 1 1 I flip ‘ 1 1 FI IT P T 1 ]\f p p r| c 

oscillation is produced inside a tube, earns- " 11Ql luc >JliUjl , l ivcciio 

ing a tone filled with the natural over- 

The world economic situation, to say 
nothing of the need for space in the 
smaller church edifices, together with the 
vast improvements in the Hammond, the 
Baldwin, the Wurlitzer, and other elec- 
tronic organs, by no means doom the old 
pipe organ. Both types of instruments 
have their distinctive place, and both are 
capable of producing a large range of 
beautiful musical effects of their kind. 
We can no longer say that an electronic 
organ should not be called an organ as 
the greater public has accepted it as an 
organ. Perhaps the best solution is to 
call it an electronic organ and the other 
a pipe organ. 

tones. This tone is conducted to a filter 
which removes the unwanted harmonics, 
leaving the desired tone quality. The tone 
filter, long familiar to physicists, permits 
absolute control of timbre, thus making 
possible any desired color. 

Churches with even slender financial 
resources can buy a suitable instrument 
at a relatively small cost. 

It is an amazing fact that several states 
in the union do not have a dozen organs 
of any kind in the entire commonwealth. 
Just what the effect of a complete tradi- 
tional organ, with normal specifications, 
will be upon builders of pipe organs is 
a matter of conjecture. The far greater 
cost of building an organ is where manu- 
facturers fail, in competition with any 
electronic. Just how this competition can 
be met is indeed a problem that must 
be considered. 

At the present time the organ world 
is beginning to be aware of a situation 
which must arrest their serious atten- 

for a Career in Radio 

(.Continued from Page 688) 

even while you are breathing. Let the 
constant presence of support become 
automatic. Once it is, you are no longer 
obliged to think about it in a stressful 
way; relaxation takes the place of ten- 
sions, and the act of breathing again 
becomes the perfectly natural act it 
should be. By letting go all exaggeration 
in drawing in breath and by keeping 
firm support unbroken. I cleared up my 
problem of escaping air. 

“These are problems that may show 
up in radio work but which are not pe- 
culiar to it. I cannot overstress the fact 
that there is no ‘special’ radio technique 
of voice production. The ambitious young 
singer who has her eyes on a career in 
radio can do herself no better service 
than to perfect her singing technique as 
carefully as she would for work in con- 
cert or opera. Her ‘occupational hazards’ 


t ^ professional Journals in radio begin after she has demonstrated 

K 8 heed t0 the march of sufficient vocal control to break into radio 

progress by ignoring what may be a re- at all. 

afl subset, ff 0 p SS fm- litieS ° f the e!ectronic “She will then find that, along with 
thiL lik n f T ° rgan /- Untl1 SOme ‘ kee Ping up vocal work with assiduous 
quality ^was aLeveT^h™ * “ tone care and Practice, she needs to develop 

little to fear But now ' vas Perhaps other skills which are hardly to be found 
intervened Inri fhR h, “*?“? has in a ^ other field of activity. I spoke 
as an actuality there ,■<, looms before of developing flexibility of style, 

proportions to be ennfen/ 1 ^ °T efinitC and it; is again impossible to overstress 
fs no S to wtt a Wlth ’ There bow important this is. The great freedom 
^ St o7 four lnL1 CC0 T Ushed - and variety ° f our radio programs have 
w m b e e a sv 1 b,X w lnstrui ? ent th e odd effect of limiting the freedom of 
tion pistons Ire on the lev V t C ° mbina - the sin ^ If you feel that you cannot 
y. ncrease in meet the requirements of popular, even 



swing-y, songs, stay out of radio! If, on 
the other hand, you feel that you cannot 
sing anything but swing numbers, stay 
awa y from the general programs! The 
average radio hour, planned to meet the 
tastes of the widest possible listening 
audience, includes all kinds of songs, and 
the greatest number of opportunities are 
for the more versatile artists. 

“Broadening one’s powers of style, in 
the last analysis, demands musicianship. 
And that, precisely, is the one require- 
ment without which no career in radio 
can be built. The finest singing voice is 
only a partial asset; it is not enough to 
launch a candidate in radio unless she 
possesses in addition a fluent ability to 
read notes; a better-than-elementary 
knowledge of theory, harmony, and 
transposition; and enough familiarity 
with musical styles to enable her to know 
immediately the manner in which a new 
song is to be projected. Not only to know 
it, but to be able to deliver it! 

“When I began giving recitals, I was 
excitedly curious to learn how the con- 
cert platform would differ from the 
microphone. I have found that there is 
no difference whatever, except that of a 
less diversified choice of program. Vocal 
projection, musicianship, and the ability 
to convey authenticity of style are ex- 
actly the same. So be wary of suggestions 
that you need to ‘change’ your style of 
singing for radio. You will certainly need 
to broaden your interpretative approach 
to include numbers you probably would 
not have to sing in your teacher’s studio. 
But apart from that, there is nothing 
you need do, or avoid doing, in radio 
that you wouldn’t have to do (or avoid!) 
in opera. Just make certain of sound, 
correct voice production, and wide gen- 
eral musicianship!” 

New Recorded Treasures 
For Music Lovers 

( Continued from Page 674) 
Francisco Symphony. Victor set 1143. 

Ormandy’s version of the Dukas score 
is a model of rhythmic precision but 
somewhat lacking in humor and true 
fantasy. As a vehicle to exploit a superb- 
ly trained orchestra, the work serves 
an excellent purpose. 

If the listener hears the superbly 
played and recorded Trojan March first, 
ten chances to one he immediately buys 
the Beecham set. And well he may, for 
Sir Thomas gives brilliant and polished 
performances of all the works. The 
Borodin is also stirring music, based on 
excerpts from his opera, and the Royal 
Hunt and Storm is an intermezzo in Ber- 
lioz’s ingenious “perfected romantic” style. 

Humperdinck: Hansel and Gretel (com- 
plete opera) ; Rise Stevens ( Hansel ) ; Na- 
dine Conner (Gretel) ', Thlema Votipka 
(Sandman and Witch ) ; John Brownlee 
( Father ) ; Claramae Turner ( Mother ) ; 
Lillian Raymondi (Dew Fairy) ; Max Ru- 
dolf conducting the Metropolitan Opera 
Chorus and Orchestra. Columbia MOP 
set 26. 

The first recording of an opera from 
the Metropolitan turns out to be the 
popular favorite of old and young alike. 
There is room for criticism in the use of 
the English language which tends to stilt 
the musical line on occasion but since 
the appeal of this opera is contingent on 
the understanding of the text it is well 
that the majority rather than the few 


have been served. The cast is on the 
whole good, with Miss Stevens and Miss 
Conner and Mr. Brownlee remaining the 
most successful projectors of the English 
language. Perhaps a less tame witch than 
Miss Votipka’s would have been desirable, 
but one appreciates nonetheless the avoid- 
ance of theatrical excesses by this singer. 
Only one member of the cast seems not 
well chosen and that is Miss Raymondi. 
After a rather poorly balanced perform- 
ance of the overture, Mr. Rudolf reveals 
himself as a knowing and competent in- 
terpreter of the orchestral part. The fine 
reproduction augurs well for future issues 
of the operas planned for recording from 
the Metropolitan stage. 

Since space does not permit detailed 
exploitation, we shall briefly speak about 
some other recent recordings. If not of 
great musical interest, the Music from 
the ballet “Raymonda” by Glazounoff 
performed by Fiedler and the Boston 
“Pops” Orchestra (Victor set 1133)— may 
well appeal for the superb quality of the 
wide-range recording. . . . Grofe’s “Mis- 
sissippi Suite” (Columbia set MX-284), 
has unquestionably received its best in- 
terpretation on records from Kostelanetz 
and his Orchestra. . . . Arthur Fiedler 
with the Boston “Pops” Orchestra turns 
in* admirable performances of Liszt’s 
Hungarian Rhapsody No. 9 ( Carnival at 
Pesth ) and also of von Suppe’s “Die 
Schoene Galathee” — Overture (Victor 
discs 11-9652 and 11-9494) .... And Muir 
Mathieson and the London Symphony 
Orchestra (Columbia disc 72237-D) give 
an appropriately vigorous and animated 
account of Boieldieu’s Overture to “The 
Caliph of Bagdad,” a lotig forgotten 

Debussy’s Sonata for Flute, Viola, and 
Harp has a sensuous charm which John 
Wummer, Milton Katims, and Laura 
Newell do full justice to in Columbia set 
MX-282. . . . And the Stuyvesant Quartet 
gives a brilliant rendition of the Brazil- 
ian Villa-Lobos’ Quartet No. 6, a work 
of harmonic richness, strength, and ex- 
citing rhythmic energy based on Brazil- 
ian folk times (International Record set 
301). . . . 

The Teacher’s 
Round Table 

What world-famous musician wrote a popular song on a dare? 

What celebrated orchestral conductor sued a publishing 
house for $500,000 because of an unauthorized biography? 

What famous composer attributed his growing 
acceptance to the vicious attacks of his enemies? 

On what important occasion were the music critics 
administered a dose of their own medicine? 

What tenor learned to sing in a concentration 
camp in Germany and made a phenomenal debut 
in New York? 

The answers to these and 
1 001 other questions 
are yours in — 


conceits at home an<l on tour, pre- 
mieres. conductors, all other essen- 
tial details. 

OPERA COMPANIES — personnel, 
repertories, etc. 

AWARDS— all of season's important 

activities, newly published works, bio- 
graphical sketches. 

CIANS- with descriptions of books 
and authors. 

RECORDINGS — Complete index of 
all serious music issued during sea- 
son. Also Music Albums. 
NECROLOGY — biographical sketches 
of musical personalities who died 
during the season. 

m Here, at last, 

is an exciting record in 
permanent form of the 
many events and personal- 
ities, successes, controver- 
sies, and human interest 
stories, that make up the 
musical year in America. 

Beginning with Septem- 
ber 1946, the entire con- 
cert season in the United 
States has been thoroughly 
sifted. From it, all the sig- 
nificant developments have 
been reported in highly 
readable fashion. Our fa- 
mous orchestras, opera 
companies, festivals, world 
premieres, activities of 
ieading musical personal- 
ities, new personalities 
who leaped to recognition, 
the musical side of radio 
and motion pictures, trends 
in music education — all 
are fully reported and re- 
viewed. There is a wealth 
of background informa- 
tion, a gold mine of refer- 
ence facts and appendices. 

For every musician, 
musical organization and 
music lover, THE YEAR 

is indispensable. Mail cou- 
pon for immediate deliv- 

Allen, Towne & Heath, Inc. 

Publishers of Books for the Music Lover 
Dept. E-l,One Madison Ave., N.Y.10 


Depl. E-l , One Madison Ave., New York 10, N. Y. 

Please rush me copies of THE YEAR IN 

AMERICAN MUSIC : 1946-1947, at $5.00 

□ I enclose remittance 

□ Send C. O. D., plus few cents postage 



City State 

( Continued from Page 668) 

Benjamin Godard: The Swallows, 
Grade 4; Second and Fourth Mazurkas, 
Grade 5; Valse Chromatique, Grade 5. 

Francis Thome: Simple Confession, 
Grade 3%; Under the Leaves, Grade 4; 
La Naiade, Grade 5; La Sirene, Grade 5. 

Ernest Gillet: Sounds From the Ball, 
Grade 2%; Babillage, Grade 3. 

A Durand: First Waltz in E-flat, Grade 
4; Chaconne, Grade 3. 

Moszkowski: In Autumn, Grade 8 (fine 
finger etude) ; Caprice Espagnol, Grade 
9 (repeated notes) . 

Theodore Lack: Valse Arabesque, 
Grade 5; Chaminade: Autumn, Grade 7; 
Gabriel Marie: Golden Wedding, Grade 
3; J. Raff: La Fileuse, Grade 7; Paul 
Wachs: The Shower of Stars, Grade 5; 
Franz Bendel: In the Gondola, Grade 6. 

And last but not least, by good old 
Gottschalk: The Bananier, Grade 5; The 
Dying Poet, Grade 5; The Last Hope, 
Grade 7; The Banjo, Grade 8. 

Your pupils will love these, and you 
will enjoy teaching them! They can be 
secured through the publishers of The 

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Arizona State College 




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You are awarded a diploma when you have completed a course 
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Please send me catalog, sample lessons and full information regarding course I have 
marked with an X below. 8 urse 1 have 

Piano, Teacher’s Normal Course 
Piano, Student’s Course 
Public School Mus. — Beginner's 
Public School Mus. — Advanced 
Advanced Composition 
Ear Training Cr Sight Singing 
History of Music 


Street No. 

Cornet — Trumpet 
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Choral Conducting 

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_ Mandolin 
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. Do you 

“Sing Unto the Lord 
a New Song” 

( Continued, from Page 682) 

choir will sing music intended for orches- 
tral accompaniment either unaccom- 
panied or with piano, while a capable 
orchestra works in the same building 
(under another director) . Sharing the 
conducting honors might be the best ex- 
pedient for securing the desired end, for 
both men should enjoy the opportunity 
of working with the neighboring group. 
Suffice to say, eighteenth century choral 
music without instrumental color is like 
salad without dressing. 

Sing and play Haydn and Mozart ! Ad- 
vanced high school and university or- 
chestras play these classic symphonies; 
fine high school and university choirs 
sing the choral works of these men, but 
too few of these same singers and play- 
ers perform ensembles, the choral- 
orchestral works, in the proper musical 
setting. Why not try the Mozart “Re- 
quiem” as a major concert to be pre- 
sented by the combined forces? If not a 
complete work, share program time and 
conducting honors through the presen- 
tation of selected Oratorio choruses. 
The Heavens are Telling, from Haydn’s 
“Creation”; or the Gloria, from the 
“Twelfth Mass” by Mozart; or the latter 
composer’s Ave Verum Corpus, with its 
simple yet beautiful orchestral counter- 
part. “Master Choruses,” a collection well 
named, furnishes much desired literature 
for interested persons. Orchestral accom- 
paniments are published for use with the 
collection. Any of these compositions are 
within the scope of the average choir 
and orchestra, and their performance 
will add much to a program. 

- v • - — “‘“cicenm 

century Russian liturgical music, but 
please bear in mind the vocal limitations 
of our youngsters when attempting to 
traverse the difficult eight-part (or more) 
unaccompanied pieces. (Mature adult 
choirs need not be so apprehensive of 
these extremes.) Certain groups may feel 
a sense of pride in performing these 
works, but the director should not lose 
sight of the fact that he is working with 
American youngsters, not with mature 
robust, long-bearded Russians for whom 
the singing of an octave “low G” was a 
natural occurrence. It is better to bring 
in the double bass or tuba for the ex- 
treme register and permit the “kids” to 
sing in a more comfortable tessitura 
Nineteenth century Russia had few or- 
chestras. Certain sections of that vast 
country developed unaccompanied opera 
through necessity. I feel sure that if an 
orchestra or even a small town band 
were in the neighborhood at the time, the 
composers and directors would have 
called upon the meanest of instrumental- 
ists for support. Why do we American 
choralists shun the marvels of our in- 
strumental development? 

We are hearing a lot these days about 
the development of small instrumental 
ensembles. Wedding these groups to the 
choral program will add not only to the 
interest of the singers but will enhance 
the programming advantages of the 
players. Girls’ Glee Clubs become tedious 
when presented in full concert. Call on 
Mr. Johannes Brahms who discovered 
this fact early in life, and hence be- 
queathed us some of the finest literature 
for women’s voices and small instrumen- 
tal groupings. The only possible draw- 
back lies in the fact that Mr. Brahms 
liked the sound of the harp, and there 
are still not enough good harpists to go 
around. One can, however, use that well- 


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known but often neglected instrument 
(in choral circles), the piano. A single 
violin or wind instrument assigned to the 
moving part of the Bach Jesu, Joy of 
Man’s Desiring can do much in giving 
the choral concert program a color varia- 
tion. The possibilities of utilizing these 
combinations are limitless and much eas- 
ier to handle than the larger instrumen- 
tal groups. 

“Oratorio production is not for our 
day.” This startling opinion has been 
voiced by certain leading choral con- 
ductors who feel that our choirs should 
be geared to the smaller choral minia- 
tures for the sake of program variety and 
audience appeal. The writer feels no such 
curtailment in the production of instru- 
mental works. If such were the case, 
Shostakovich should have used much less 
ink when writing his extended sym- 
phonies. The fact remains that discrim- 
inating audiences have not recoiled from 
the great orchestral works, but instead 
have demanded their existence. Why 
then, do we permit the stripping of the 
choral idiom to the bone by venturing 
forth with only small dabs of this and 
that? Performances of great choral works 
should become the “rule” rather than the 
circus-like “exception,” as is now the 
practice. The writer laments the modern 
composer’s lack of producing these works. 
The list of really fine modern works of 
concert proportion is drastically small in 
comparison to the output for the individ- 
ual choral and instrumental idioms. Let 
us try to make a market fdr these works 
and perhaps they will start appearing in 
greater number. 

Let us become better acquainted with 
the choral-orchestral music of the nine- 
teenth century Europeans; Brahms, 
Franck, Faure, and even Gounod. The 
recent printing of the deeply religious 
“Requiem” by Faure, has enjoyed a well- 
earned place on many choral programs 
and church services. The orchestral por- 
tion of this work is comparatively simple 
and can be given an impressive reading 
with organ, harp (or piano) , and violins, 
plus a horn if available. Directors with 
more adequate forces at their disposal 
may choose such works as the “Song of 
Fate” by Brahms, or they might even 
try the “Requiem” by the same composer. 
The experience of doing any portion of 
this great music will become a cherished 
memory for singers, players, and audi- 

Present day arrangers and publishers 
have been bringing out several so-called 
“music education settings” for band and 
choir, or orchestra and choir. The war 

Music Corporation RCA Building Radio 

years produced the greatest amount of 
this material, mostly of a patriotic na- 
ture appropriate for festival occasions 
that demanded large ensemble display. 
Now that the war is over, these pieces 
lose much of their former appeal. We are 
now content, even anxious, to turn to 
music that possesses other than patriotic 
sentiment for its own sake. This respite 
from the patriotic song “in full dress” 
behooves directors again to make their 
selection of material with the broad view 
in mind. 

Ambitious conductors with nicely whet- 
ted appetites should select choral-orches- 
tral settings from the great moderns, 
Ralph Vaughan-Williams, Gustav Holst, 
Zoltan Kodaly, Paul Hindemith, and the 

Americans, Howard Hanson, Randall 
Thompson, and others. Every university 
choir and orchestra should be given the 
opportunity of knowing this music, for 
how else can we keep abreast of musical 
progress. The challenge to singers and 
players alike will be sufficient motivation 
for such production if promoted by a mu- 
sical director who is keenly aware of its 
musical value and willing to promote the 
idiom with sincerity and enthusiasm in 
the face of inevitable apathy on the part 
of some singers and players. The crown- 
ing victory is realized when these same 
apathetic individuals become champions 
for this 'newer expression, and that vic- 
tory is apparent at the end of each sea- 
son of rehearsals. 

Building the String Bass Section 

(.Continued from Page 683) 

places them in a very difficult range for 
bass. One very practical means of utiliz- 
ing ’cello material without troubling to 
transcribe, is to use tenor clef material, 
altering the signature to the key a fifth 
lower, and reading as though written in 
bass clef. Since the literature for solo 
bass is necessarily limited, such a device, 
particularly for study purposes, is one 
which may be found highly advantageous. 

Another advantage of using solo ma- 
terial for study purposes is the shift of 
emphasis which results from such pro- 
cedures. Interpretation, rather than tech- 
nic, becomes the primary consideration. 
Tone quality and bowing are more im- 
portant, the vibrato and legato styles are 
stressed, and dynamics are brought to 
the player’s attention, not as an adjunct, 
but as a component of the musical re- 
sult. Too often in the study of etudes, 
marks of expression are ignored rather 
than observed to the letter. 

The Bow 

Always it is necessary to concentrate 
upon the bow. Until a smooth change at 
point and frog has been attained, there 
is little likelihood that legato passages 
will be performed satisfactorily. It is 
necessary to cross strings smoothly, avoid- 
ing a too-slanting position of the bow. 
The flat of the* hair in contact with the 
string will produce the greatest amount 
of friction possible, therefore, the rounder 

more even tone. Musicianship in every 
detail is as essential in bass playing as 
it is in violin playing, and any rough- 
ness, unless deliberately implied by the 
composer, is absolutely inexcusable. 

An article on the string bass would be 
incomplete without entering the., old .con- 
troversy of which to use, the German or 
Butler bow, or the French model bow. 
This is an issue which will probably 
never be settled, as there are notable ex- 
ponents of each method. Some players 
have even used the ’cello grip on the 
Butler bow with satisfactory results, and 
say they prefer its balance to that o’f the 
French bow. The crux of the argument 
lies between what is most to be desired, 
power or smoothness; but everyone has 
a right to his own opinion as to which 
type has the best combination of both. 

Standards in bass playing have steadily 
risen in recent years. There have been 
great virtuosi of the string bass in the 
past, and there are some living, today. 
Among the students in our school orches- 
tras, however, there are few who play 
the bass exceptionally well, and there is 
need for more who value the instrument 
highly. Jazz men have already proved 
that the bass is unsurpassed for pizzicato 
and rhythm. It may also be proved, by 
those willing to make the sacrifice, that 
the full possibilities of the bass as a 
symphonic instrument may be attained 
in the local orchestra. 

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Chappell, believing that the student pianist requires moments 

of relaxation in the course of piano study, is offering this 
PIANIST, which incorporates both pedagogical and recrea- 
tional qualities. 

In starting this series, we offer piano compositions which have achieved 
continental success and will enlarge it in the future with similar works 
from our foreign and domestic catalogues. 

We have not graded these pieces since we feel that to be the function of 
the piano teacher. 


Eric Coates 

A flowing and romantic piano composition 
by this famous English composer 500 

THE THREE MARINERS — Barbara Kirkby-Mason 
BY THE SEASHORE — Barbara Kirkby-Mason 
GREEN GLADES — M. E. Marshall 
THE WAGTAIL — M. E. Marshall 
400 EACH 


Joan Last 

Splendid supplementary material for the beginning piano 
student. The attractive text helps with the rhythmic 
approach ' 50 < 



Improve your playing 
by Broadwell Technique 

Learn how the Broadwell Principles of Mental-Muscular Coordination and 
the Keyboard Patterns Method to gain proper keyboard habits can greatly 
improve your Accuracy, Technique, Memorizing, Sightreading and Playing. 


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C ' TY " STATE. 

An Amazing Subterranean 
Oratorio Performance 

( Continued from Page 669) 
Haydn’s picture of the tremendous cata- 
clysms of the earth two hundred million 
years ago, under the shallow sea which 
submerged that part of our country. It 
is estimated that the same cosmic up- 
lifting and folding movements as those 
which created the towering Rockies, 
raised the Guadalupe Mountains above 
the sea level. As the waters of the sea 
gushed through the limestone, these in- 
credible caverns were carved out many 
million years ago. The underground tor- 


rents created amazing fantastic and 
picturesque underground canyons. At the 

!?nn a ? Ce ° f the caverns - the altitude is 
4400 feet (nearly a mile high) . The en- 
trance itself (100 feet wide) is most 
impressive. It resembles the proscenium 
arch of a great opera house. The United 
States Government has spent over a mil- 
lion dollars in exploring, trail making 
electrifying, and installing other equip- 
ment for the Caverns. There are now 
from 30,000 to 76,000 visitors a month 

If you have never been to the Carlsbad 
Caverns National Park and viewed the 
astounding caverns, you can have no 
conception of the startling effect of the 
first glimpse of their immensity. 

Although the caverns were first re- 

“I ported in the early years of the Civil 
I War (1862) by cattlemen and goat herd- 
I ers, it was not until 1901, when Jim 
I White, a cowboy, made the first explora- 
I tion of their vastness. The caverns are 
I located in a semi-desert country near 
I the thriving and progressive city of 
Carlsbad with its 15,000 population. Carls- 
bad is also the potash center ijf the 
I United States, producing thousands of 
I tons annually of this indispensable fer- 
I tilizer. The city is located in the south- 
I eastern corner of New Mexico and is 
surrounded by the rugged foothills of 
I the Guadalupe Mountains, covered with 
I many floral beauties unknown to East- 
erners. The area was established October 
I 25, 1923, as a national monument, by 
proclamation of President Calvin Cool- 
idge. The Carlsbad Caverns National 
Park was established by Act of Congress 
May 14, 1930, and extended in 1939 to 
include approximately 50,000 acres. It has 
been found that there are scores of 
caverns in this district, but only one is 
open to the public. 

Modern attention to the caverns was 
first drawn by the swarms of bats (esti- 
mated as over three million) which have 
inhabited one section of the caverns since 
prehistoric times. During the summer, on 
a schedule that is determined almost to 
the minute, black clouds of these bats 
leave the caves to forage for food. They 
return as though by clock work at dawn, 
and are never seen by day. This led 
enterprising ranchers to suspect the ex- 
istence of valuable guano fertilizer de- 
posits in the cave. A shaft, 178 feet in 
depth, was driven into the mountain side 
and it is reported that more than 100,000 
tons of valuable guano were removed. 
The bats confine themselves to one sec- 
tion not visited by the public. 

Prom an illustrated historical booklet 
distributed by the Santa Pe Railroad to 
whose officer, Mr. Lee Lyles, the author 
is indebted for the pictures with this 
article, the following paragraphs are 
quoted. “With an artificial shaft as a 
base, Jim White and a Mexican boy 
worked their way into the underground 
labyrinth, returning from each trip by 
the guiding strings laid down on the 
mward journey. The spare time of years 
was devoted to his slow and hazardous 
explorations. Few cared to accompany 
im and often he went alone, equipped 
with food and compass, a crude miner’s 
lamp, a rope and wire ladder and balls 
of twine. Among those to follow White 
through a section of the caverns, in 1923 
was the late Dr. Willis T. Lee of the 
United States Geological Survey,” 


Later (1924), a scientific expedition 
under the auspices of the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine, amazed the world with 
its findings. The various series of caverns, 
with their tremendous formations (one 
boulder is estimated to weigh 200,000 
tons), the delicate, lace-like draperies in 
the King’s Room and the Queen’s Cham- 
ber, the enormity of the Big Room, about 
one-half a mile long and 1700 feet wide, 
with a ceiling at places of 285 feet in 
height, which could house many sky- 
scrapers, which, together with the pools, 
lined with crystalline marble onyx, the 
tremendous stalactites and stalagmites, 
like huge, ghost-like totem poles, all 
flooded with powerful electric lights, 
make these vast caverns the experience 
of a lifetime. 

The booklet previously mentioned states, 
“The United States Government has 
spent more than a million dollars in 
the development and operation of Carls- 
bad Caverns.” 

The three mile tour on a walking trip 
through the caverns requires four hours. 
The visitors, however, may elect to re- 
turn by one of the two elevators that 
were installed in 1931-1932 and that 
transport them 754 feet in 67 seconds. 

The temperature of the caverns, year 
’round, is 56 degrees. The atmosphere 
has 90 per cent humidity but there is no 
objectionable odor. Twenty-three miles 
of the caverns have been explored, but 
the entire extent of this underground 
fairyland is not yet known. The public 
is admitted to depths approximating 754 
feet. The huge dining hall, 754 feet under- 
ground, where thousands are fed daily, 
is like the interior of a great church. 

Musicians and scientists visiting the 
caverns noted that the acoustics were 
extraordinarily good. It was doubtless 
this which urged Mr. Conkling to make 
the tremendous effort to produce “The 
Creation” there, in the majestic Hall of 
the Giants, where the Ranger guides 
used to stop and sing Rock of Ages. At 
the present time there is no music in 
the Carlsbad Caverns. The vast number 
of visitors, with their safety the respon- 
sibility of the U. S. Government, have 
made it necessary to have four complete 
tours per day, for the convenience of 
the public. The Government feels that 
a visit to the caverns is an educational 
experience, and not a show. It would 
seem that this position is extreme, and 
that by it the greater public is deprived 
of an auxiliary pleasure that could not 
fail to thrill the imagination of thou- 
sands who come from all over the world 
to inspect the caverns. The Rangers tell 


the public that there never are any in- 
stances of falling stones or stalagmites 
since the caverns have been explored. If 
a choral and orchestral group of a hun- 
dred and seventy-five performers in an 
entire oratorio did no damage to the 
caverns, it is unlikely that an amplified 
program of great musical masterpieces 
on records could do any harm whatever. 
It would certainly add immensely to the 
joy of a pilgrimage through the caverns. 
The citizens of Carlsbad and visitors gen- 
erally would welcome such an installation 
which could contribute so much to the 
beauty of a visit to one of the world’s 
great natural wonders. 

These phenomenal caves would stagger 
the imagination of a Goethe, a Dante, 
a Shakespeare, a Hugo, a Gustave Dore, 
a William Blake, a Wagner, a Brahms, a 
Moussorgsky, a Debussy, or a Prokofieff. 
Unless it is definitely and scientifically 
determined that the caverns could be 
damaged by beautiful music, not as a 
showman’s trick, but as a contribution 
to the human side of a cavern tour, the 
writer feels that the joy of thousands of 
American citizens, who pay for the main- 
tenance of the caverns and the bureaus 
which supervise them, should not be 
marred by the absence of glorious musi- 
cal masterpieces as a part of one of the 
great experiences of a lifetime. 

The Joyous Mendelssohn 

(.Continued from Page 673) 

bronze statue of Mendelssohn in front of 
the Gewandhaus in Leipzig. Mendelssohn 
—the sweet and beautiful Mendelssohn, 
whose only crime was to add beauty and 
joy and culture and happiness, not mere- 
ly to the land of his birth, but to the 
entire world, became the target of brutal 

One usually associates with the average 
composer a garret-llke life, often inter- 
rupted with pathetic failures, bitter strug- 
gles for money, and incessant intrigue. 
Partly owing to the religious and philo- 
sophical moderation established by Men- 
delssohn's grandfather, Moses, and to 
the fact that by the German opposition 
to Napoleon, Prussia became a very pow- 
erful political unit, Mendelssohn lived 
in a most progressive and comfortable 
period in German history. This, together 
with the wealth of his parents, the lofty 
atmosphere of their beautiful home life, 
reheved him of the oppression which so 
many feel is necessary to create master- 
pieces. “Born with a silver spoon in his 
mouth,” in an atmosphere of ease and 
culture, and an environment of such 
complete family love as is rarely recorded 
in the history of Time, Mendelssohn’s 
divinely gifted creative genius flourished 
until he was honored by musicians and 
worshipped by the entire world. Through 
his brief career he was indeed a favored 
child of Fortune. His music, like his life, 
was full of sunshine, refinement, and 
scholarly brilliance. He was spared from 
sorrow until his very last days. Mere 
show was hateful to him. He sought per- 
manence and inner worth in all the de- 
tails of his work. Perhaps that is the 
reason why now, one hundred years after 
his untimely death, Mendelssohn’s music 
holds such a high place in the minds and 
hearts of multitudes. 

According to his mother, Felix and his 
eldest sister, Fanny, whom the boy 
worshipped, were bom with “Bach fugue 
fingers.” Their father spared nothing to 
provide the children with the best teach- 


ers available in music, languages, history, 
and drawing. 

The Mendelssohn home at No. 3 Leip- 
ziger Strasse, beautiful and impressive, 
was always the musical center of Berlin. 

In the spacious garden stood an inter- 
esting portico, capable of seating several 
hundred guests. Often the mellow sun- 
light cast its beams like a crowning bene- 
diction over all. This garden served both 
as a concert hall and theater, where the 
dark-eyed, magnetic youth dreamed his 
musical fantasies and frequently trans- 
lated them into passages of immortal 
beauty in the presence of Germany’s 
most gifted men. Beautiful was the archi- 
tecture of that home, but more beautiful 
was the atmosphere inside it, blessed with 
the spirit of love, that made it a mecca 
for artists and musicians. The pianist, 

Moscheles, who was Felix’s teacher and 
a frequent visitor in the Mendelssohn 
home, once said, “A family such as this 
one I have never seen before! Felix, a 
mature artist, and yet but fifteen! Fanny, 
extraordinarily gifted, playing Bach’s 
Fugues by heart! And the parents! They 
gave me the impression of people of the 
highest culture. They are far from being 
overproud of their children; indeed they 
are anxious about Felix’s future — whether 
his gifts are lasting and will lead- to a 
solid, permanent career — or whether he 
may not suddenly collapse, like so many 
other gifted children!” This was refresh- 
ingly different from the patent commer- 
cialism of Mozart’s father — and the silly 
egotism of Franz Anton von Weber! 

Every Sunday, musical performances 
were held in this home. On these occa- 
sions there was usually an orchestra. 

This was the inspirational prelude to 
Felix’s immortal life which was saturated 
to its fullest with the world’s best classics 
and exalted by his own compositions. 

Someone has said, “Wealth breeds self- 
ishness!” This may be true in many 
cases, but it is not so in that of Felix 
Mendelssohn. His short life teemed with 
kindly acts, and his unselfishness, ac- 
cording to critics, was very marked. He 
loved nothing more than to serve others, 
and the bubbling gaiety of his heart al- 
ways found a responsive echo in some 
other soul. One day, the distinguished 
English critic and musical writer, Henry 
Chorley, went to Leipzig for the purpose 
of meeting Mendelssohn and hearing 
some of his compositions. Shortly after 
his arfival, he was taken ill and confined 
to his room in a crowded German inn. 

Naturally, he was heartsick with disap- 
pointment. A few hours after his illness 
became known, a grand piano was clums- 
ily moved into his room. Upon making 
inquiry as to the meaning of such a 
strange procedure, one of the men said, 

“Dr. Mendelssohn’s orders. He’s coming 
up directly to play upon it!” Shortly there- 
after Mendelssohn arrived and for several 
hours delighted the sick man, giving no 
thought to the valuable time .spent in 
entertaining one individual when the 
Whole world was clamoring for his pres- 
ence and for his music! 

Of all composers, Mendelssohn was the 
most meticulous in faithfully standing 
by contracts and verbal promises. His 
ethical standards were of the highest. 

In dress he was a real aristocrat, steer- 
ing away from the popular “shoddiness” 
of the average contemporary musician, 
and presenting an extremely elegant ap- 
pearance and bearing. Discourtesy and 
a certain amount of snobbishness, which 
are associated with some artists, were 
(Continued on Page 727) 



Illustrated below are the two 
aids attached to a Grand Piano. 
They can be attached to any 
style piano. Spinet, Grand or 

Pianos are essentially built for adults. 
the piano for tiny tots. Both the Music 
Rack and Foot Rest can be adjusted 
to any type of piano — Grand, Upright 
and Spinet in an instant. 

RACK can be adjusted to any desired 
height and brought forward, so that 
a child's eyes will be on a level with 
his music and at the correct distance, 
eliminating eye strain. 

To further aid the child’s comfort at 
the piano, we have 


Can be used successfully on any type 

With this Foot Rest, a child sits at the 
piano at ease, with his feet resting on a 
platform six inches from the floor, elimi- 
nating the dangling of his legs. What 
could be more uncomfortable for a child 
than having no support for his feet and legs. 

I — Adjustable to Any Style of Piano_ 
MUSIC J 2 — To Raise or Lower to Desired Height 
RACK ) 3— A Device on Back of Rack for 
L Adjusting to Any Angle 

r \ — Six Inches High Here 
FOOT J 2 — Five Inches High Here 1 
REST 1 3 — Attach to Piano Pedal 

(4 — For Operating the Pedal 

Very important, to up-to-date piano teachers, is having the child learn the 
use of the pedal. Our FOOT REST is an attachment to the pedal which 
extends to the top of the platform. By pressing his foot on the pedal attach- 
ment, a child can operate the pedal without having to stretch his legs. 

With the MUSIC RACK AND FOOT REST, a child at the piano is 
comfortable, and when comfortable, he is inclined to practice longer 
and progresses more rapidly. 



Flash Cards 

|A System lor Teaching Sight 
Playing to Little Tots, or 
Beginners of any Age 


Speed Drills — Consists of 32 Cards to be placed back of the Piano Keys 

On these cards are notes corresponding to the key on the keyboard, showing 
the position of each note. Thus, the student learns through 
his eyes instead of the written or spoken word. 

cards m piac e_ back of piano k e>s With SPEED DRILLS it is easy to teach little folks quickly 

and without effort the piano keyboard. 

SPEED DRILLS stress visual accuracy, recognition of key- 
board positions, rapidity of playing the keys, producing 
rapid visual, mental and muscular co-ordination. 

With the use of SPEED DRILLS a child learns quickly 
the location and position of the keys and while learning, 
his studies become a pleasant game instead of an 
arduous task. 

Speed Drills should be used at the very first lesson, and a pupil 
should have a set at home for daily drill 
Price 50c 


It's Easy to play the chords in all keys with this 
Book. Pictures of the Keys and the Fingers to Play 


Many teachers all 
over the country are 
using this with other 
material in teaching. 

A copy will be mailed 
for your inspection. 

If not wanted, re- 
turn and money will 
be refunded. 


In the book are instructions 
for playing the keys and 
other simple instructions. 


' — — 


Private Teachers (Western) 


Paris — New York — Hollywood 
Member Natl. Assn, of Teachers of Singing 

J Developer of Singers of Metropolitan Opera, Chi 
I Haywood Bowl, Radio, etc. "VOICE 

| FUNDAMENTALS" (J. Fischer & Bro., N. Y. Pub.) 

was endorsed by W. J. Henderson (N. Y. Sun), Amato 
I Journet, and others of that great era. 

I 2,50 Beachwood Dr. Hollywood, Calif. 


Teacher for Piano Teachers 

Modern Piano Technic: Group work for Teachers: 
Coaching concert pianists: Conducting "Piano 
Teachers Forum." 

1 005*72 Elm Street. Dallas 2, Texas Phone C-6214 


Vocal Studio 

J Individual, creative training and refresher course for 
I teachers. 

1 167 El mhurst Ave. Detroit 3. Mich. 



Pianist and Teacher 

'Of all pianoforte teachers with whom I have had 
to do, either as pupil or associate, Mary Boxall Boyd 
is, in my opinion, the best." — Leland Hall, Prof, of 
Piano at Smith College. 

Add. 113 W. 57th St., c/o Nola Studios, Steinway 
Hall, New York City, N. Y. Summer classes for 
teachers and students. 


Concert Violinist, Teacher, Coach 
From Beginning to Concert^ Performance 
Trained and Endorsed by Louis Persinger and 
Georges Enesco (Teachers of Yehudi Menuhin) 

■ Res. 801 S. Dunsmuir Ave. 

| Los Angeles 36, Cal. WYoming 8354 


Concert Pianist — Artist Teacher 

I 229 So. Harvard Blvd. 

>E. 2597 

Los Angeles, Calif. 



The only place where you can learn the original 
I Samoiloff Bel Canto Method which developed such 
1 outstanding voices as NELSON EDDY, BIANCA 
I SAROYA, DIMITRI ONOFRI and many others. Now 
I under the direction of Zepha Samoiloff. 

Write for Catalog, 3150 West Sixth St., Los Angeles 5 
1 Phone FE 8294 No charge for Audition 


Author of "Basic Pianoforte Technique" 

Teacher of Teachers. Coach of Young Artists 
Pupils Prepared for Concert Work. Class Courses 
in Technique, Pianistic Interpretation, Normal 
Methods for Piano Teachers. 

79 McAllister St., Room I, San Francisco: 

2833 Webster St., Berkeley, Cal, 


Advance Piano Interpretation and the Theory work 
required for the degrees of Mus. Bach., and Mus. 
Mas. bpecial Chopin interpretation. 

Detroit, Mich. 

| Private Teachers (New York city) 


Concert Pianist 

Interesting course — piano, harmony 
Many Successful Pupils 
I 166 W., 72nd St., N. Y. C. Tel. Sc 4-8385 

Private Teachers [New York City) 

The Revival of the English Carol 

(Continued from Page 671) 



For full Information address: 

338 West 89th Street New York 24, N. Y. 

Tel. SChuyler 4-0261 


405 Carnegie Hall, New York City 

Collaborator and Associate Teacher with W. Warren 
Shaw A. M. Endorsed by Floyd S. Muckey M. D. & 
C. M. Demonstration of correct action of vocal 
chords shown of Columbia Univ., Cornell Medical 
Clinic, Univ. of Vermont, Music Teachers Assoc. East- 
ern Speech Conference, Hunter College— Physicians 
& Artists — 

Wednesday: Troups Music Studios, Lancaster Pa 
Ji’ursday: 309 Presser Bldg., Philadelphia. Pa. 



Voice — Piano 
Among those who have studied with Mr. La Forge are: 
Marian Anderson, Lawrence Tibbett, Richard Crooks 
and Mme. Matzenauer. 

MOO Park Ave., Corner 89th St., New York 
Tel. Atwater 9-7470 


Organist — Composer — Teacher 

Director of Music, Madison Ave. Presbyterian Church 
Head of Theory Dept., School of General Studies, 
j Columbia University 

| 921 Madison Ave. New York City 

Tel.: Monument 2-3426 



Mr. Lagourgue is the author of "The Secret" — Daily 
V ocal Exercises — Complete Treatise on Transposition , 
etc. Classes held annually at 

The College International of CANNES, France 
New York Address: 35 West 57th Street 


Representative TOBIAS MATTHAY 

Private lessons, class lessons in Fundamentals 
... _ . Summer-class, Southwest Harbor Me 

801 Steinwoy Bldg, New York City 


Concert Pianist — Artist-Teacher 

Recommended by Emil Von Sauer, Moritz Moszkowski 
and Joseph Hofmann. 

Studio, Carnegie Hall, Suite 837, 57th St. at 7th Ave 
Tel. Columbus 5-4357 New York City 

Summer Master Class— June 15 to August 15 


Dramatic Soprano 

Teacher at Singing— "Bel Canto" 

Experienced European trained Artist 
Coaching Opera, Concert and Radio 
Correct voice production, defective singing corrected I 
Beginners accepted 

AfiR w! : Jc a j A° r 7 ‘ 8230 Mon " Tues " Wed.. Thurs. . 
608 West End Ave. New York City 

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Voice Building, Breathing, 
Diction, Expression, Style. 

In .preparation for 

Radio, Screen, Stage, 
Concert, Opera. 

Tel. Vo-5—1362 

New York City 



Has Your Child 

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Write Sec y. Shnbert, 1780 Broadway N Y City 

Salute the Happy Morn, a carol that had 
already attained some popularity. Two 
other additions are also worthy of men- 
tion, the first was the ballad carol All 
You That Are to Mirth Inclined which 
appeared so often on the broadsides. The 
other is of still greater importance for 
it gave us the first available copy of The 
First Noel. Unfortunately, however, no 
time was available. 

A second larger and more scholarly col- 
lection was published by William Sandys 
in 1833. He had intended publication 
some years earlier but in deference to 
Gilbert, Sandys delayed the project. Like 
Gilbert, William Sandys was elected a 
member of the Society of Antiquaries and 
sought his carol material in the West of 
England. In addition to his interest in 
earlier customs and culture of his coun- 
try, he was a musical amateur, a circum- 
stance that influenced the course of his 
published works. Sandys’ collection was 
made “as an amusement during some 
visits to the West of England,” but the 
foreword is an extended study of Christ- 
mas lore in ancient England as well as 
in other countries. Besides the English 
carols he adds some observations and 
examples of the French and Dutch carols. 

This 1833 collection is much larger than 
Gilbert’s and contains many new carols 
and carol tunes which Sandys describes 
as melodies of a “pleasing and plaintive 
nature most of which appear to be of 
considerable beauty.” In fact these were 
a selection from others, for he desired 
“to bring forth only the best.” They in- 
clude such melodies as those for God 
Pest Ye Merry, Gentlemen, I Saw Three 
Ships, Joseph Was an Old Man (Cherry 
Tree Carol ) , and When God at First Did 
Adam Make. In the midst of these ap- 
pears the tune for The First Noel which 
offers a few exceptional notes. Although 
a fairly popular carol, it did not appear 
generally on broadsides but as already 
mentioned it was obtained somehow by 
Gilbert for his second edition of 1823. No 
tune was given and neither was there any 
comment on the carol save the heading 
For Christmas Day in the Morning. The 
tune is equally mysterious for it is given 
by Sandys without comment and to this 
day the tune still remains somewhat of 
a mystery. 

who was generally the same person. It 
was the custom of the beadle to call at 
the various houses of the parish around 
Christmas to deliver some official docu- 
ments but with these it was customary 
to include a broadside with a carol of 
appropriate significance. That for the 
beadle and bellman was adorned with 
the fitting carol The Moon Shines Bright. 
This carol is better known in connection 
with the May Day Carol which appropri- 
ates some of its stanzas. The publishers, 
to suit the carol to the purpose, changed 
the line of the opening stanza, “The Lord 
our God, he called on us” to read appro- 
priately : 

And hark the bellman of the night 

He bids us awake and pray. 

In time however the Christmas Box 
came to have another meaning, a collec- 
tion of carols, poems and even stories 
relating to the Christmas season. One of 
the more influential was the anonymously 
published “Christmas Box” which was 
printed in Dudley in 1847. It was designed 
as a chap, or cheap book, divided into 
two parts, with the pages numbered con- 
secutively and amounting in all to about 
a hundred pages. The carols which ap- 
peared without tunes contain many of 
the repertoire common to our day. The 
cover is adorned with an active beehive 
which at first sight seemed very inap- 
propriate until the following passage was 
observed in Sandy’s preface. He says, 
"Even the poor innocent bee was used to 
pay tribute to the Lord at least once a 
year in good Metheglin (mead, a drink 
made with honey) for the entertainment 
of the guests and wax converted into 
plasters for sick neighbors.” Space does 
not permit us to enlarge on the history 
of the Christmas Box save to add that 
the practice was common in America 
where similar publications were brought 
out in Philadelphia as early as 1829. 


The Christmas Box 

Other collections of carols appeared 
which had some little effect on the re- 
vival, such as those of E. F. Rimbault in 
1846 and Edmund Sedding (1864) . How- 
ever, there was another strong influence 
an indirect one, that helped in the re- 
vival. This was the Christmas Box. Orig- 
inally it was an earthen jug prepared 
to receive the gratuities solicited by the 
working class at Christmas tide. The day 
after Christmas was set aside for such 
solicitations and was known as Boxing- 

Pdqd’ ^ became su ch a nuisance that in 
1836 there was legislation against the 
practice but in 1871 it was made a legal 
holiday. The employers were generally 
presented with a pi ea for the gratuity 
and a carol was often included as an 
addition in keeping with the season. One 
of these of special interest was that pre- 
sented by the parish beadle and bellman 



Use of Old Broadsides 

William Husk’s “Songs of the Nativity” 
published in 1866 is another milestone 
in the revival and the work of a .scholar. 
His study is particularly interesting be- 
cause it made use of the old broadsides 
for a large number of carols as the basis 
of the collection. Husk took a rather 
pessimistic view of the survival of the 
carol, and cautioned that “unless there 
is a free spontaneous movement among 
the people the carol will die.” Fortunately 
such a spirited revival appeared and 
coupled with the efforts of the clergy the 
carol achieved the honored place it has 

Finally the collection of Bramely and 
Stainer published in 1865 is judged by 
some as the greatest of the incentives. 
Here in convenient form were a goodly 
number of old carols. A second edition 
with some additions appeared in 1875, a 
sign of the demand for this collection. 

The picture presented here is an en- 
lightening course of the hard road the 
English carol travelled before it reached 
the position it held in former centuries, 
ow that the old carols ring once again 
rough the Christmas season it seems 
hard to comprehend such an age as the 
ear y nineteenth century when they were 
largely a thing unknown. 



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(Continued from Page 725) 

Clara Schumann once said of Mendels- 
sohn, “Of mere effects of performance 
he knew nothing; he was always the 
great, genuine musician, and in hearing 
him one forgot the player and only rev- 
elled in the full enjoyment of the music, 
never a part of Mendelssohn’s behavior. His Playing was always stamped with 
On the contrary, he was unusually well beauty, pomp, and dignity.” 
balanced, devoid of unpleasant and un- Mendelssohn’s most individual con- 
becoming idiosyncrasies, and “every inch tribution to music was his typical Scherzo 
a gentleman!” movements, the first of which appeared 

Beneath the wholesome sweetness of in the piano Quartet in B minor, Opus 
his tranquil disposition there was great 3 - This he dedicated to his good, old 
force, diligence, and regularity. He was friend , the poet Goethe, 
a brilliant and powerful conductor, and Tlle student would do well to trace the 
in his management of the Gewandhaus fine executive ability of Mendelssohn, in 
orchestra, he had the intense loyalty of his man y remarkable feats in organizing 
his men. He left behind no ugly record P ublic events, and also in establishing 
of discontent and intrigue, which is all what was for man Y Y ears one of the 
the more unusual when we think of the foremost orchestras of the world, the 
explosive behavior of some of his con- Gewandhaus orchestra, as well as found- 
temporaries, such as Wagner and Berlioz in S one °f the really great music schools 
Mendelssohn not only had decided liter- of histor y, the famous Leipziger Con- 
ary gifts (as indicated by his charming, serva t°rium. With rare genius and di- 
instructive “Letters”*), but his remark- P lonlac y he guided the fate of these 
ably skillful pen drawings and watereolors institutions for years, exhibiting fine 
attracted wide attention. He was an all- mana serial skill. 

around athlete and loved dancing, swim- ° ne of his most Prominent traits was 
ming, riding, and billiards. Although his his anxiety to help his contemporaries 
principal instruments were the piano and ^any of his fellow artists owed much 
the organ, he was also more than an of their success to Mendelssohns wise 
adequate performer upon the violin and Judgment, discernment, ceaseless enthu- 
the viola siasm, and generous pocketbook. 

Possessing these exceptional character- More than a centur Y ag0 Felix Men- 
istics, it naturally followed that a man tlelssohn lay down his baton as conduc- 
in his position was much sought after tor of the great Leipzig Gewandhaus 
by members of the opposite sex. He was Orchestra and invited Niels Gade to be 

his successor. The bond between Men- 
delssohn and his sister Fanny was psy- 
chologically very close. She died May 14, 

continually falling in love, first with one 
pretty girl, then another. But in this, as 
in everything else, he was fair, never 



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once being guilty of stealing the love of 1847 - Mendelssohn was heartbroken and 

another. According to his biographer, « ever l ecov 5 r ^ *rom th * s blow ’ He *** 
Stephen Stratton, “No breath of scandal November 4 1847 less than six months 

bedimmed the brightness of his char- af ^ r Jus sisters deat . 
ter „ Down the steps of the century, Felix 

When Felix was twenty-eight he mar- Mendelssohn, the autocrat of musicians 

ried the gentle Cecile Jeanrenaud, daugh- has moved W™**. f ™ 

ter of a French Huguenot parson, who ««* sunshine to all who wo^d hsten 

was scarcely more than a child. Her ex- and ° d allke ’. * 

ceptional beauty and calm mannerisms each music-loving individual nth a 

Xw M.nM*oh» me a — , 

breeze. He gallantly attributed much of favorite sister> will Uve fore ver in the 
his later success to her soothing and 1 - hearts Qf all men And in the cen turies 

spmng m uen • ® ~ , to come, Mendelssohn’s invisible baton 

children (Carl, Marie, Paul, Felix and ^ supple fingers will sway unborn 
Elizabeth) were born into this home, audienceSj as they did one hundred years 
cementing (he familiar circ - agQ pQr what he could not p 0ssib i y ac - 

sohn happiness into a larger and more compUsh in his m eager thirty-eight 

beautiful one. years of living on earth, his immortal 

Mendelssohn never sought to be 1 0 - music will do in an eternity of To- 
la ted! He possessed the rare ability of , 

carrying on an animated conversation 
while composing. Seemingly, the entire 
composition had been worked out in his 

mind so clearly that it “literally spread Through one of those chains of un- 
out in sheets before him.” A friend called fortunate circumstances which now and 

one day as he was working on his Over- tVipn send ed jtorial staffs spinning on 

ture in C Major. The friend felt his thgir ^e^ve earS; a glaring error was 
presence might interrupt the tram 0 made in Harold Berkley’s excellent 
the composer’s thoughts, as it was a score interview W j t fi tn e world-famous violin- 
for full band. But Mendelssohn insisted ^ zino PranceS catti, which appeared in 
on the friend staying, and his pen kep ^ October issue. The notation on Page 
writing the music for the different in- referred to as being taken from the 
struments, while both tongues wagge p a g an jni caprice No. 6, was incorrect. It 
incessantly. should have been the Caprice No. 6, in 

Felix began to compose when a ve y edition edited by Mr. Berkley. The 
small boy. He made his first public p- p aganini caprices are numbered differ- 
pearance at the age of nine. At tmrtee , ent]y in Afferent editions, and The Etude 
he played his own piano concerto 1 retg that an excerpt from the wrong 
public, and at seventeen^ he cond caprice (No. 6 in another edition) was 
his own Overture to A Midsummer shown _ this thr0 ugh no fault of Mr. 
Night’s Dream,” which from e y g p rancesca ft;j or Mr. Berkley. Also, the line 
portrayed the hand of a master oj > text referring to this example should 

highest originality. have read; “Take, for example, the first 

measure of the Sixth Caprice,” not “the 
•Readers of The Etude will find the series, edited fir t measures.” 
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The Christmas-Time Oratorio 

by Elsie Duncan Yale 


Ouiz No. 27 

1. If a certain minor scale has three 
flats in its signature, what are 
the tones of its dominant seventh 

2. Who wrote a symphony called the 

Can You Spell? 

Are you a good speller in English? 
Some words are pretty hard to spell, 
especially when you are trying for a 
good mark in a test. 

Are you a good speller in music? 
The rules for music spelling are not 
complicated, yet mistakes are easy to 
make, unless two simple rules are 

The letter names in a scale always 
follow the order of. the alphabet. 
Rule No. 1 is: Never omit a letter of 
music’s alphabet when naming the 
tones of a scale. Rule No. 2: Never 
use the same letter twice within an 
octave. That’s easy to remember. 

Take the scale of A major— A, B, 
C-sharp, D, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A. 
Why not call these tones A, B, D-flat, 
D, E, G-flat, A-flat, A? Because that 
would be breaking both rules as some 
letters are omitted and some are 
used twice within the octave. 

Next, make a triad on A. Is it A, 
C-sharp, E, or A, D-flat, E? Well, 
what was the third tone of the A 
major scale? C-sharp, of course, and 
that’s your answer. 

And now you see why it is some- 
times necessary to call the F on the 
keyboard by the name of E-sharp, as 
in the scale of C-sharp major (C- 
sharp, D-sharp, E-sharp, F-sharp, 
and so forth) . If it were called F in 
this scale, both rules would again be 
broken, as the letter E would be 
omitted and the letter F would be 
used twice. 

So, whenever you are uncertain 
about musical spelling, write down 
the scale you are concerned about 
and take the triad or chord letters 
from that. Keep the same spelling 
and remember the test of the two 


3. In what opera is the scene laid in 

4. Who wrote it? 

5. What is the letter name of a 
major third from E-sharp? 

6. What composer was born in 1810 
and died in 1856? 

7. Does calando mean getting softer, 
or slower, or softer and slower? 

8. Which major scale has the great- 


est number of flats in its signa- 

9. When five players or singers per- 
form together what is the combi- 
nation, or the music for such a 
combination, called? 

10. What is the name of the symbol 
pictured with this quiz? 

(Answers on Next Page) 

ffltvvp Christmas 

Christmas is! tomtits, Cftmtma* is 

^>oon toe’ll tie taping Cfjmtmas is 

“$eace on eartf) to men of goob toill” 
i?lap toe all fjelp, tfjis prayer to fulfill. 

< f-r t r that DO you think, Miss 

W Brown?” Margie exclaimed, 
as she entered her teacher’s studio 
for her lesson. “My uncle Steve is 
going to sing a solo in the Oratorio, 
‘The Messiah,’ next week and Mother 
and Dad are going to take me. Isn’t 
that wonderful?” 

“It certainly is, Margie, and I’m so 
glad you are going. Have you ever 
heard it?” 

“Not exactly, but once I heard the 
combined High School chorus sing 
the Hallelujah Chorus, and another 
time I heard parts of it on the radio.” 

“It is one of the most wonderful 
works of its kind ever composed. You 
remember reading about ‘The Mes- 
siah’ in that book I gave you about 

“Well, Miss Brown, I really did not 
get a chance to finish that book, and 
Helen wanted to read it so I brought 
it back.” 

“Oh, yes, I remember. Well, Handel 
had become quite poor and owed 
some debts when he wrote it, and he 
was quite discouraged when his 
friend, who had selected the Bible 
verses for it, remarked that he did 
not think much of the music! But 
just then came some cheerful news — 
the Duke of Devonshire invited Han- 
del to come to Ireland and give some 

From the Overture to ‘* The Messiah.” 

feZrt 'cr 

A Bit of Handel's Manuscript 

concerts. Handel joyfully accepted, 
agreeing to give some of the proceeds 
of the concerts for the relief of pris- 
oners and to hospitals, and he left for 
Ireland in November, 1741. 

“He gave six concerts in Dublin 
and they were so well received he an- 
nounced he would give the Oratorio 
‘The Messiah,’ feeling sure there 
would be the same large audience 
When the announcement was made 
public that a new oratorio would be 
given by Mr. Handel, there was also 
a polite request— that in order to 
make more space in the concert hall 
gentlemen would please come with- 
out swords and ladies please not to 
appear in hoop skirts!” 

“Now just imagine fussing over 

Marg S ie. m ^ dayS! ” exclai ™d 

“Yes, indeed. And that' helped 
things a lot because seven hundred 
people could be accommodated in the 
hall instead of six hundred. Every 
body praised the Oratorio and it 
came to be very popular. During 
Handels lifetime it was presented 

thirty-four times, and you could not 
count the times it has been given 
since, and usually during the Christ- 
mas season; in fact, it has become 
known, as the Christmas-time Ora- 
torio. Why, it was even given i n 
Japan the Christmas after the war! 
Of course the great feature of this 
Oratorio is the glorious Hallelujah 
Chorus, and when you go to hear it 
you will find that the audience 
stands while this part is being 

-NTUsiC'JHs// in. JDub/in., cohere 

the / 4 esS>a.h. mas jFtrst performed. 

“I’ve heard about that,” said 
Margie. “Why do they stand?” 

“Well, Margie, that’s an interesting 
story, too. In 1743 it was given in 
Covent Garden in London (that’s 
the name of a big opera house there, 
you know) , and the King, George II, 
was present. When he heard the 
opening measures of the great chorus 
he rose to his feet and of course 
everyone followed his example, be- 
cause when the king stands, those in 
his presence stand, also. That was 
over two hundred years ago, but 
whenever “The Messiah” has been 
sung since, whether in a large audi- 
torium with famous soloists, or in 
country churches, everyone stands 
while the "Hallelujah Chorus" is be- 
ing sung.” 

“I think that’s wonderful, Miss 
Brown, really I do. It shows such re- 
spect for Handel and his oratorio, 
and for the sublime words of the 
chorus, for even that one word, Hal- 
lelujah, means so much. It must have 
taken Handel ages to write such a 
big oratorio,” she remarked. 

Not at all, Margie. Handel, of 
course, had it all in his head, as they 
say, but he wrote it in only twenty- 
four days.” 

Whee!” exclaimed Margie, “I know 
I m going to have a big thrill when I 
hear it.” 

Im sure of it, Margie, and I’m so 
glad you are going. I’m going too, and 
I may see you there. I go every year, 
you know. Christmas time would not 
seem like Christmas time without 
that Oratorio, ‘The Messiah.’ ” 

I certainly hope I can hear it 
every year, too,” said Margie. 


Junior Etude Contest 

The Junior Exude will award three at- 
tractive prizes each month for the neatest 
and best stories or essays and for answers 
to puzzles. Contest is open to all boys and 
girls under eighteen years of age. 

B Class A, fifteen to eighteen years of 
age; Class’ B, twelve to fifteen; Class C, 
under twelve years. 

Names of prize winners will appear on 
this page in a future issue of The Etude. 
The thirty next best contributors will re- 
ceive honorable mention. 

Put your name, age and class in which 

you enter on upper left corner of your 
paper, and put your address on upper 
right corner of your paper. 

Write on one side of paper only. Do 
not use typewriters and do not have any- 
one copy your work for you. 

Essay must contain not over one hun- 
dred and fifty words and must be re- 
ceived at the Junior Etude Office, 1712 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia (1), Pa., by 
the 22nd of December. Results will appear 
in March. Subject for essay this month: 
“My First Lesson.” 

Answers to Change-a-Letter Puzzle 

This puzzle in September had more than one 
solution and some contestants sent in more than 

one a few even made it come out in five steps 

instead of six. The solutions include: Bach- 

Prize Winners for 
Change-a-Letter Puzzles 
Class A, Herman Sieber (Age 16) , North 

Class B, Melvyn Kuritzky (Age 14), New 

Marjo Andrews (Age 10), Wisconsin 
(Don’t forget. Juniors, neatness and 
attractively gotten up answers help to 
make prize winners) 

Honorable Mention for 
Changc-a-Lettcr Puzzle: 

Carol Wollon, Bobby Neil. Johnathan Thackery, 
Wanda Smith, Raymond Den Adel. Marie 
Barnett. Staley Olsen. Betty Roeschlein, Wal- 
ter Tuppel. Sally Lieurance. Dixie Ann Koss, 
Claudette Leveque, Joan Haselton, James Mason 
Martens, Julie Owen, Charlotte Frey, Matoira 
Westermark, Shirley Ann Ferber. Irene Kay 
Hiley, Joyce Boggers, Darylene Jackson, Mary 
Therese Gregory, Freddie Turner. Barbara 
Clark, Marie Whaley, Ann Padgett, Jane 
Roberts, Bennie Bedenbaugh, Shirley McCall. 

Dear Junior Etude: 

I enjoy The Etude very much. I have been 
taking piano lessons for three years and am 
going to take saxophone lessons too. I have 
been in the Junior Band for one year, play- 
ing the bell lyre. 

From your friend, 
Marilyn Musser (Age 11), 

Dear Junior Etude: 

I am studying singing seriously and also 
piano and theory. I hope to be in the Metro- 
politan opera some day. I practice about three 
hours a day and read books about music, 
composers, theory, harmony, symphonies, 
opera and chorus. Some day soon I hope to 
have a radio-victrola set so I can listen to 

From your friend, 
Ann M. Martin (Age 14), 


back - lack - lark - hark -harp ; Bach-bath -hath- 
bash -hash -hasp - harp ; Bach -back - tack -hack- 
hark-harp; Bach - bath - hath - hate - hare - harp: 
Bach -back-bark-hark -harp. 

Letter Boxers 

Replies to all Letter Box writers should 
be addressed in care of the JUNIOR 

The following lines are taken from 
letters which limited space does not per- 
mit printing in full. 

“I am soon going to take up written har- 
mony, keyboard harmony, and ear training. I 
would love to hear from some one who is 
interested in music.” 

Darlyene Jackson (Age 9) , 


■1 am starting on my tenth year in piano 
and am planning to major in music. I would 
love to hear from music lovers.” 

Mary Sue Ingram (Age 17), 

North Carolina. 

“I take piano lessons from ray mother. I 
would be happy to receive letters from musical 
boys and girls.” 

Sanford Feibus (Age 11), 

‘‘When I was young I was a monotone but 
my piano teacher made me sing the melody 
of every piece I played and I can now sing 
quite well. I would like to hear from some 
one who loves music as I do.” 

Mary Elizabeth Whitney (Age 14). 


‘‘I read The Etude in school and would like 
to hear from some other Juniors interested in 

music.” _ . , , , 

Nancy Griggs (Age 14), 

Answers to Quiz 

1 G, B-natural, D, F; 2, Beethoven; 
3, “Madam Butterfly”; 4, Puccini; 5, 
G-double sharp; 6, Robert Schu- 
mann; 7, softer and slower; 8, C-flat; 
9, a quintet; 10, Double-sharp. 

B-natural Music Club, 

Annette Dunn, Evelyn Smith, Jo Ann Timber- 
lake, O. J. Stancill, Mattie StanciU, Jerald 
Allen, Curtis Paul, Bobby Nichols. Dallas 
Evans, Ray Evans, Peggy Nicholls, Mitzi Sue 
Taylor, Betty SmalU Doris Jean Waters, Charlie 

eenville, North Carolina 

, Mar Respees, Ann James, Nancy Jack- 

on Lois D^nm Elizabeth James. Frances Elks, 
iobbv Harrison, Dorothy Tucker, Lois Tucker, 
t i Howell Sylvia McLin, Betty Jane Jack- 
om p y a"y Renfrew, Barbara Tillym Lu Tilly. 




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Instruments, Public School Music, Conducting, Theory, Composition. Courses 
for veterans under G.I. Bill of Rights. Spring Semester opens February 9. 

For free catalog, write Arthur Wildman, Musical Director, 1014 
South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 5, Illinois. 



Institutional Member o t National Association of Schools of Music 




A Monthly Bulletin of Interest to all Music Lovers 

there are many children and parents of 
children now living who have never been 
in a home where they have seen logs 
burning in a fireplace and perhaps have 
never seen a snow-covered country land- 
scape, these scenes as reproduced on 
Christmas cards, magazine covers, store 
window Christmas displays, and else- 
where just seem to be a part of Christ- 
mas to everyone. 

The cover on this Christmas issue of 
The Etude is the first published maga- 
zine cover from the brushes of the prom- 
ising young Philadelphia artist, Miss 
Marian Larer. She studied art at the 
Philadelphia Museum School of Indus- 
trial Art. She has gone back about a cen- 
tury in the American scene of living to 
give us this heartwarming Christmas 
scene where several generations of a 
family, with perhaps the aid of some 
friends and neighbors, are giving expres- 
sion to the holiday mood. Somehow or 
other human hearts in celebrating the 
Saviour’s birth love to reach back 
through the centuries and mingle in 
their festive thoughts and activities the 
various manners in which others from 
the time of the shepherds and the Wise 
Men rejoiced over the birthday of the 

So this year, although not all of us 
will have fireplaces, open rafters over- 
head, or rooms in our houses or apart- 
ments to accommodate a large family 
group, we can nonetheless have our sur- 
roundijigs overflowing with the Christ- 
mas spirit and raise our voices in the 
joyous singing of beautiful Christmas 
carols. Such celebrations by gatherings 
the world over would be especially fitting 
this year, for they foster that unity so 
necessary to a lasting “Peace on Earth, 
Good Will toward Man.” 

ALL FOR SERVICE— There are some who 
have made a fortune in presenting to the 
public strange and amazing facts they 
have searched out. A visit to the Theo- 
dore Presser Co. stockrooms would inter- 
est and amaze anyone. On the shelves 
will be found thousands of music publi- 
cations of which a single copy only is 
procured from the respective publisher 
every few years, and in some cases, much 
longer intervals. Then there are thou- 
sands more of which several copies are 
procured from the respective publisher 
every year, others where the shelf wrap- 
per shows five, ten, or fifteen copies or- 
dered every six months, and so on it goes 
to those which must be ordered in hun- 
dreds and some in thousands each time. 

Then in the stocks of Presser, Ditson, 
and Church Co. publications it would be 
noted that the stock replenishing records 
showed some items which the publishers 
kept in print even though printing a 
minimum quantity of 250 copies meant 
sufficient stock to cover five or ten years’ 
demand; other items ranging in larger 
quantities, some going to amazing figures, 
50,000, 100,000, or more for a season’s 

The detail of keeping such an amazing 
stock of music publications is tremen- 
dous, but it is “all for service.” The main- 
tenance of this world’s largest stock of 
music publications makes it possible for 
the Theodore Presser Co. by its direct 
mail service to please and satisfy thou- 
sands of music buyers the world over. If 
it is an existing music publication, thou- 
sands know the best source from which 
to order it is Theodore Presser Co., 1712 
Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 1, Pa. 


ecember, 1947 


All of the books in this list are in 
preparation for publication . The 
low Advance Offer Cash Prices ap- 
ply only to orders placed NOW. 
Delivery ( postpaid ) will be -made 
when the books are published. 
Paragraphs describing each pub- 
lication appear on these pages. 

American Negro Songs — For Mixed Voices 

Work .80 

Basic Studies for the Instruments of the 
Orchestra Traugott Rohner 

Student's Books, each .25 
Conductor's Score .60 

Chapel Echoes — An Album of Sacred and 
Meditative Music for Pianists Young and 

Old Peery .40 

The Child Tschaikowsky— Childhood Days of 
Famous Composers 

Lottie Ellsworth Coit and Ruth Bampton .20 

Eighteen Etudes for Study and Style — For 

p 'ano Scher .25 

Gems from Gilbert and Sullivan — 

Arranged for Piano Mittler .40 

Heads Up! — A One-Act Operetta on 
Safety Federer .40 

In Nature's Paths— Some Piano Solo De- 
lights for Young Players 40 

Keyboard Approach to Harmony. . .Lowry .75 

Lighter Moods at the Organ — With Ham- 
mond Registration 90 

Little Rhymes to Sing and Play— For Piano 

Hofstad .30 

More Once-Upon-a-Time Stories of the 
Great Music Masters — For Young Pian- 
ists Robinson-Stairs .30 

Music Made Easy— A Work Book 

Mara Ville .25 

My Everyday Hymn Book — For Piano 

Richter .40 

Short Classics Young People Like— For 

Pi Qno Ketterer .35 

Sousa's Famous Marches— Arranged for 
Piano Solo Henry Levine .70 

HEADS UP! A One-Act Operetta on Safety, 
Book and Lyrics, by Robert Wayne Clark 
and D. Willard Zahn, MUSIC by Ralph Fed- 
erer — Here is an entertaining and in- 
structive operetta, which far outstrips the 
usual type of play produced by juvenile 
groups, and is- well worth the time and 
effort expended in producing it. The cast 
requires six major characters with solo 
parts, and a number of minor characters. 
The Chorus, the Jury, and the Safety Pa- 
trol emits may be large or small depend- 
ing upon personnel available and stage 
capacity. Costuming and staging present 
no problems. The music offers a skillful, 
snappy setting for the clever lyrics, which 
are the work of two authorities in safety 

School and community audiences 
everywhere will profit by a presentation 
of this new operetta. Reserve a copy now 
at the special Advance of Publication 
Cash Price of 40 cents, postpaid. 

IN NATURE’S PATHS, Some Piano Solo De- 
lights for Young Players — This album Will 
become a real favorite with students in 
the early grades. As suggested by the 
title, the content throughout will bear 
upon the various attributes of nature, a 
feature which will make it a generous 
source of recital material and recrea- 
tional fare for young pianists. The entire 
collection will be restricted to pieces in 
the first and second grades. 

Orders are being accepted now for sin- 
gle copies of In Nature’s Paths at the 
special Advance of Publication Cash 
Price of 40 cents, postpaid. 

MUSIC MADE EASY, A Work Book by Mara 
Ville — This work book for young musi- 
cians will prove to be an innovation in 
the music teaching field. Though it has 
been designed as supplementary material 
to Robert Nolan Kerr’s All In One, it 
can be used with any other piano method. 
It orientates the young student with such 
theoretical problems as: music symbols, 
note values, time signatures, scales, 
rhythm, accents, ties, slurs and tetra- 
chords. Added features consist of a 
matching test, true or false tests, and at- 
tractive illustrations. The text includes 
some interesting poems and there is 
ample space provided for the student’s 
own written work. 

A single copy of this forthcoming book 
may be reserved now at the special Ad- 
vance of Publication Cash Price, 25 cents, 

Piano Solo by Henry Levine — Never before 
have all of Sousa’s famous marches been 
obtainable in a single Volume, and never 
have they been issued in such playable 
piano arrangements as these. Imagine 
one dozen of the “March King’s” immor- 
tal creations, such as The Stars and 
Stripes Forever; El Capitan; The Liberty 
Bell; Semper Fidelis; Washington Post; 
High School Cadets; The Thunderer- 
Manhattan Beach, and three others, now 
offered, while the book is in preparation, 
at the low Advance of Publication Cash 
Price, 70 cents, postpaid. This offer is for 
a limited period only. Order your copy 
today; one only to a customer at this 

Piano, by Mildred Hofstad-This is a Work 
primarily for students of the pre-school 
level. It is a collection of familiar nursery 
songs with the melody part arranged 
within the five finger position for each 
hand. The pupils readily memorize the 
tunes and words since they are songs 
whmh wfii stimulate interest in the pu- 
pi . These simple arrangements will be 
excellent for ear-training and the devel! 
opment of a rhythmic sense. 

While this book is being made readv 
singie copies may be ordered at the spe- 
a! Advance of Publication Cash Price 
30 cents, postpaid. e ’ 

For Piano, Compiled and Edited by Ella 
Ketterer — The author of this book has 
distinguished herself as a teacher of 
piano and composer of educational pianp 
material. In this compilation she has se- 
lected some thirty-five choice short clas- 
sics which are representative of the work 
of nearly all the great composers. “Every 
one of the pieces,” she says, “is a favor- 
ite with my own pupils. They are com- 
positions which my pupils ask to play in 
their recitals, which is sure proof that 
they are liked.” The grade range is from 
two to four. 

Prior to publication, orders for single 
copies are being received at the special 
Advance of Publication Cash Price of 35 
cents, postpaid. 

CHAPEL ECHOES, An Album of Sacred and 
Meditative Music for Pianists Young and Old, 
Compiled and Arranged by Rob Roy Peery 

The compiler of this book, an expert 
church musician, has drawn generously 
upon his own experience in preparing 
these useful arrangements in about grade 
two-and-one-half. Among the more than 
thirty numbers included will be some of 
the finest choral music of Bach, Bort- 
niansky, Franck, Gaul, Maunder, and 
Mendelssohn, now probably published for 
the first time in piano _ adaptations. 
Works by other composers' will include 
Kremser’s Prayer of Thanksgiving; 
Faure's Palm Branches; the Triumphal 
March by Grieg; Ave Maria, by Schu- 
bert; the Choral from "Finlandia” by Si- 
belius; Humperdinck’s Evening Prayer, 
from “Hansel and Gretel”; and the 17th 
Century melody, A Joyous Easter Song. 

Prior to publication, single copies of 
Chapel Echoes may be reserved at the 
special Advance of Publication Cash 
Price, 40 cents, postpaid. The sale is lim- 
ited to the United States and its posses- 

STALE, For Piano, by William Scher — En- 
gaging study material for young musi- 
cians comprises this valuable new book 
soon to be published in the familiar Mu- 
sic Mastery Series. Readers know the 
composer for his many clever piano solos 
which have appeared during recent years 
on the pages of The Etude. 

Each study in this new collection of 
second grade pieces is devoted to a par- 
ticular phase of piano technic— such as, 
the trill, rhythmic precision, arpeggios 
and chords, double thirds, and repeated 
notes. Easy keys only, both major and 
minor, are used. At the special Advance 
of Publication Cash Price, 25 cents, post- 
paid, one copy to a customer may be 
ordered now. 

Hammond Registration — This delightful 
collection of easy pieces for organ will 
soon be published as a member of the 
popular cloth-bound series which in- 
cludes Organ Vistas, and such long 
standing favorites as The Organ Player 
and The Chapel Organist. Such a group- 
ing of pieces ranging from easy to me- 
dium grade will be especially useful to 
young organ students for recital pur- 
poses. The contents will be found in no 
other book, as all are original numbers 
drawn from copyrighted publications of 
the Theodore Presser Co. Registration is 
provided for both standard and Ham- 
mond Organs. 

One copy to a customer may be ordered 
now at the special Advance of Publica- 
tion Cash Price, 90 cents, postpaid. 



GEMS ,1 for Piano by Franz Mittlei— Radio 
who admire the playing of the 
US iphrated First Piano Quartet will be in- 
f led in knowing that one of its mem- 
te has made the arrangements of the 
ber ?/„oPular Gilbert and Sullivan tunes 
? tiffs collection. Keeping them within 
n IaV ing capabilities of the third grade 
th It Mr Mittler has selected the lead- 
fnf favorites from those Gilbert and Sul- 
fvan operas most frequently heard on 
he radio and performed on the stage, 
whe text is given with each selection. 

Because of existing copyright restric- 
tions this book will be sold only in the 
United States and its possessions. Single 
onnies may be ordered now at the special 
Advance of Publication Cash Price, 40 
cents, postpaid. 

Margaret Lowry— Designed fOT high school, 

college or private classes in harmony, 
this book presents the subject in a man- 
ner that doubtless will appeal to more 
students than the standardized text 
books. The author calls it a “singing and 
playing” approach, and uses as examples 
quotations from Mozart. Haydn, Bee- 
thoven, Chopin, and the other great mas- 
ters in addition to employing material 
from folk song sources. The twenty-seven 
lessons cover practically all phases of 
elementary harmony and simple modula- 
tion in a delightful but nevertheless 
thorough manner. 

While this book is in preparation, sm- 
ile copies may be ordered at the special 
Advance of Publication Cash Price, 75 
cents, postpaid. 

Voices, by John W. Work — John W. Work 
of Fisk University, a distinguished au- 
thority on Negro Spirituals has here a 
compilation which should be utilized by 
schools, libraries and choral conductors. 
This work consists of more than two 
hundred Negro Folk Songs; both reli- 
gious and secular. In addition to the spir- 
ituals ther« are also “blues,” “work, and 
social songs. More than one hundred of 
the songs included are harmonized for 
four-part choral use. Others are pre- 
sented with melody and text. 

In addition to the songs there are five 
chapters of descriptive matter on the 
music of the Negro as well as an exten- 
sive bibliography and index. This should 
prove valuable to those doing research in 
this field of music. 

A single copy may be ordered at the 
special Advance of Publication Cash 
Price, 80 cents, postpaid. 


Days of Famous Composers, by Lottie Ells- 
worth Coit and Ruth Bampton — The seventh 
book in this series, which has brought 
delight and benefit to countless young 
piano pupils, includes story incidents from 
the youthful life of another famous com- 
poser, together with easy-to-play piano 
solo arrangements of such Tschaikowsky 
favorites as the Theme from the “Alle- 
gro” of the Sixth Symphony; Theme 
from “Marche Slave”; Theme from 
“June” (Barcarolle) ; Theme from the 
“Piano Concerto No. 1”; and a piano duet 
arrangement of Troika. Children five to 
twelve years of age will enjoy following 
the directions for dramatizing the story, 
listening to the suggested recordings, or 
working out a recital program. 

One copy may be ordered now at the 
special Advance of Publication Cash 
Price of 20 cents, postpaid. 

by Ada Richter — A sequel to My Own 
Hymn Book, by this author, and designed 
for young pianists of second grade abil- 
ity, My Everyday Hymn Book contains 
some fifty hymn tunes, including a sec- 
tion, “Hymns for Children.” Among the 
“Gospel Hymns” will be found The Old 
Rugged Cross, and Living for Jesus, both 
used by special permission. The selections 
are very easy to play, all octave stretches 
and difficult chord progressions having 
been eliminated. The collection will be 
useful in the home or Sunday School, 
where experienced players are not always 

One copy of this new collection may 
be ordered now at the special Advance of 
Publication. Cash Price, 40 cents, postpaid. 

Pianists, by Grace Elizabeth Robinson, Musi- 
cal Arrangements by Louise E. Stairs This 
book will come as an echo of the success 
accorded its predecessor, Miss Robinson’s 
Once-Upon-a-Time Stories of the Great 
Music Masters. The general plan, in fact, 
will follow that of the older book. Com- 
binations of biographical material for 
children and simple transcriptions of 
popular pieces by the various composer- 
heroes will make up its content. The ai - 
rangements are by the highly successful 
composer for children, Louise E. Stairs, 
and the composers represented will be 
Chaminade, Dvorak, Gounod, Grieg, 
Liszt, Rubinstein, Saint-Saens, Sibelius, 
Strauss, and Tschaikowsky. 

Until this book is ready, orders for 
single copies may be placed at the special 
Advance of Publication Cash Price, 30 
cents, postpaid. The sale is limited to the 
United States and its possessions. 

OF THE ORCHESTRA, by Traugott Rohner 
— This series of studies by an outstand- 
ing music educator should prove of great 
assistance to instrumental students who 
have some playing knowledge of their in- 
struments, but need more basic training 
in scales, intervals, arpeggios, etc. The 
author has included some very entertain- 
ing “Time Teasers,” and some attractive 
pieces. Basic Studies for the Instru- 
ments of the Orchestra will be available 
for Violin, Viola, Cello. Bass, Flute-Oboe, 
Clarinet-Trumpet, F Horn, E-Flat Horn 
and Saxophone, Trombone-Bassoon- 
Tuba, and Conductor’s Score. 

Single copies of the various parts may 
be reserved now at the special Advance 
of Publication Cash Price, 25 cents for 
each part, and 60 cents for the Conduc- 
tor's Score, postpaid. Be sure to list the 
parts desired when ordering. 

"Cfirustmas 3Baton” 

The editorial, “Christmas. Dawn.” 
in this issue of The Etude, is in the 
' form of a poem by our Editor, James 
Francis Cooke, who for many years 
Ins had a strong feeling that the cus- 
tomary musical editorial could not 
awaken the Christmas spirit, which 
seemed to demand poetlcalexpression. 

This poem is one of a loii 0 senes, 


Spned mountain range known as 
sunim'e (lc Cristo (blood of Christ). 

Even at that time Dr. Cooke foresaw, 

as is indicated in one of the verses, 
the great coming need to send food to 
FifroDe and still more, the necessity of 
extending loving sympathy to millions 
in despair. 





in the 





(Madeavailable through 
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York City, and (c)_^ audition Before^a. ( *£j :STANDING , (d) Another 

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Accompanist’s Background and 

Equipment Pettis, Jan. 7 

Adjudicator, Qualifications of ..Revelli, Apr. 198 
America’s Great Peace Hymn McFadden, Dec. 667 
Arm, Its Relation to Keyboard Schmitz, Apr. 203 

Arriving, Technique of Ganz, Mar. 144 

Artist on Tour, Observations of ..Lev, Aug. 427 

As Others See You Bodegraven, Nov. 619 

Bach, Learning to Understand Tureck, Oct. 549 
BAMPTON. Sound Vocal Development Feb. 125 

Band, A Famous Military Zcalley, Aug. 439 

Band Fundamentals, Teaching 

Marching Ferguson , Sept. 499 

Band and Orchestra, Course of 

Study for Britton, May 259 

Band Questions Answered ..Revelli, Feb., Aug., 

Sept., Oct. 

Band, Evolution of Military .. Ze alley, June 319 

Bar Line, Tyranny of Garbett, Aug. 440 

Battistini and Plangon Rogers, Aug. 435 

Bells, Wonder of Rieder, May 263 

BORI. Technical Proficiency in Singing June 324 

Bowing, Some Principles Cook , July 381 

Bowing, Siamese Twins of Wells, Nov. 621 

Breathing in Relation to Vocal 

Expression Bullard, Feb. 75 

Business on the Side Leon , Mar. 143 

Calliope, Floating Music Box . . Yohlen, Apr. 196 
Can You Set a Standard? .... Rieder, Sept. 490 
Carol, Revival Of the English de Brant, Dec. 671 
’Cello-Virtuosity or 

Musicianship? Schuster, Mar. 128 

Choir, Developing the Boys’ .. Cooper, July 384 

Choral Cultism Klein, Nov. 618 

Choral Director’s Dilemma Klein, Oct. 558 

Competition — Festival, The . . Revelli, Mar. 138 

Conducting is an Art Defauw, Feb. 84 

Damper Pedaling MacNabb, Oct. 553 

Damrosch, Tribute to May 244 

“Down Under’’, He Fought 

His Way to the Top Buzzard, June 313 

Drill and Formation Routines for the 

Football Band Ferguson, Oct. 559 

'A Master Speaks of 

the Master Feb. 124 

Basic Policies and Tradi- 
DUMESNIL ■< tions of a Famous 

Music School July 376 

Tales of Isidor Philipp Oct. 563 

.Teachers’ Round Table Each Issue 

EDISON. My Father and Music Feb. 65 

Editorials Each Issue 

Einstein, Musical Visit with . . .Foldes, Jan. 5 
Electric Organ, What about?. . .Smith, May 264 
Emotions, Music Molds Our . . Antrim, Aug. 429 

Etude The, in Calcutta June 308 

Fiddling in a Blizzard Aug. 480 

Finger Efficiency in Piano Study, 

Building Bartley, Aug. 443 


Been My Life Oct. 545 

Handicaps Did Not Stop Them Lehman, Jan. 23 

Hands, Grace of Holmes, Nov. 608 

Harp, as a Career Vito, Nov. 609 

Hearing and Musicianship . . . Muncie, July 369 

HEMPEL. Preserving the Voice Nov. 605 

“Home Sweet Home” and Its Author, 

Romance of ~ Woolf, Sept. 484 

Home Sweet Home”, Romance of 

John Howard Payne Woolf, Oct. 

How Businesslike Are You? Reid, July 

Industry Can Do for Music, 

What . . . Antrim, Feb. 

Intonation, Factual Approach to 

Howland, May 

Cimcise Index of The Etude for 1947 

(To save space the titles of many of the articles have been somewhat condensed) 















.Stubbins, July 

Stubbins, June 318 

Feb. 108 

. . James, Jan. 18 
Ellington, Mar. 134 

Master Lessons 

Intonation, Secrets of. . 

Intonation, Problem of 
Is Your Milk Bachized? 

It Does Happen Here . . 

Jazz, Interpretations in ... 

JERITZA. The Singer Faces the 

World ..... Apr. 185 

Jullien, Louis Antoine, Father of 
America’s Pop Concerts Graves, Sept. 493 

K»on 0r T* E 7? d , e ’ Gest ■ Each 

5 ,, P Ii.^ at ’, lral Farrell, Dec. 670 

Kelly Michael, Career of Nettl, June 309 

La J? uardla » Fiorello — The Passing of 

“The Little Flower” Nov. 616 

Lawrence, Marjorie, A Musical Tour of 

Europe Today j uly 365 

Letters from Etude Friends Feh l?n 

MAIER. . . -Pianists’ Page .Each Issue 

Management Builds* Artists Schang, Feb. 83 

Mascagni, Mrs. Turns the Trick Hyatt, June 308 
/'Chopin’s Prelude, Op. 

28, No. 8 . . Silber , Nov. 624 
Raff’s Cavatina 

(Violin) Berkley, May 260 
Schumann’s “Whims’’ 


No. 4 .. 

, _ L Bach .... 

Mazas, More About 

/-Chi Va Piano, 

La. Lontano 

Helping the Congrega- 
tion Worship Through 

Organ Music Jan. 

Hymn Accompaniments Feb. 

New Progressive 
Material for Organists Oct. 
Notable Organs of 

America June 317 

Organ Accompaniments Mar. 137 

J Organists Can Improve 

Organs . Apr. 197 

Planning Effective and 
Inspiring Services . . . Sept. 497 
Special Music for Wed- 
dings and for Memor- 
ial Services Nov. 617 

Summer Courses for 

Organists May 257 

Ihe. Importance of the 
Piano for the Organist Aug. 437 
I The Organ-Piano 

Combination July 377 

Mendelssohn, The Joyous . . . Johnson, Dec. 
Mouthpieces, Uses and Abuses of 

Cup pt. II Jacobs, Jan. 

Music, A Gift to Religion? Was Antrim, May 

Music and Philately Crouch, Oct. 

Music Educator Meets Music 

Dealer Revelli, Sept. 

Music Educators, Course in Orchestral 

Instruments for Christmann, Aug. 438 

Music Helps With Other Studies, 

How Green-, May 256 

Music Links Them All Garbett, Nov. 623 

Music Lover’s Bookshelf . . Cadman, Each Issue 
Music Study, Bringing 

Delight to Payne, Apr. 184 

Music Study, Essence of . . Bernstein, Apr. 204 
Music Teacher Takes a Vacation Guhl, June 307 

Musical Devils, Some Lathrop, Jan. 15 

Musical Duels Blind, July 381 

Musical Interpretation, Mood Essential 

i n . Blauvelt, Apr. 195 

Musical Kleptomaniacs Nettl , Feb. 66 

Musical Provincialism, How to 

Avoid Lekberg , Apr. 194 

Musical Taste, Developing .... Previn, June 320 
Musical Terms, Use 

Accurately Gregory, Aug. 436 

Musikwiz Lowall, Apr. 194 

New Responsibilities for Musical 

Groups Mar. 126 

Newman, Roy, American Composer .. May 260 
Ninety Years in Music (Mr. and Mrs. 

Crosby Adams) Bueler, Nov. 613 

Opera Revived in Heart of 1859 Gold 

Rush Collison, Jan. 

Operatic Career, Prepare for Singher, Jan. 
Organ and Choir Questions . . Phillips, Jan. 
Organ, Evolution of Electricity in 

the Dunham, Dec. 

Organist, JLate Blooming Calvin, Nov. 620 

Paderewski, My First and Last Lesson 

With Johnson, Apr. 193 

Paddy and Polly, Memory of Happy 

^ D f. y f Wj th . • • • • Schelling , Jan. 16 

Paulist Choristers, Building of.. Finn, Nov. 615 
Pedals — Soul of Pianoforte. .MacNab b, Sept. 501 
Pedaling— “Step-Child” of Piano 

Study Chenee, June 323 

PENNARIO. Virtuoso in the Jungle.. June 305 
Piano The, Likes to be Played . . Boyd, May 253 

Pianist Plays the Organ Helman, Mar. 137 

PIATIGORSKY. Heart of the ’Cello. . . Aug. 425 
Puzzle, An Operatic Crossword Peake, Jan. 20 
Questions and Answers . . Gehrkens, Each Issue 

£ ad ?° Morgan, Feb., Apr., June, Aug., Nov. 

Radio Conducting as a Career Weber, July 367 

Read to Music, How to Peycke, Mar. 127 

Recognition for Army, Navy, and 

Marine Musicians Mar 128 

Record Review R ee d, Jan., Mar., May, 

_ . July, Oct. 

Repertoire, Basic Pieces in 

Todd, Feb. 68 

Rhythm How Important? Roeder, Sept. 500 

oacred Music Progressing, Is ..Binder, Apr. 189 
kamaroff-Stokowski, Mme. OJ&a, Music : 

Crime Cure j an> g 

o C f?f.. on Each Degree Brownson, May 248 

bchilhnger Techniques, Applying to 

o W / • • • Montgomery, Nov. 607 

School Music For All ! ... Wettlaufer , Feb. 78 

( “The Show Must 

Musician, Don’t ^ 255 
Worry About 
Your Heart . . Dec. 677 

SEGUROLA ( M ?. HaI1 . of f-*" -- ® ept ’ 487 
1 Memories 

, Tourjee , Apr. 187 

Tourjee, Dr. Eben, Musical 


True or False in Harmony 

Land Matthews, Aug. 434 

Variation on a Given Theme . . Woolf, Aug. 435 
Vibrato, A Well Developed .. Berkley, Oct. 561 

Viola, The Revelli, Feb. 79 

Violin Questions Berkley, Each Issue 

Violin Tone, An Aproach to . . Vespa, Jan. 21 
Violin Tone? What Gives a .. Ballard , Dec. 684 
Violinist's Forum ... Berkley, Feb., Apr., June, 

Aug., Dec. 

Violinst The, Who Thrilled Your 

Great-Grandmother Jacobs, Mar. 140 

Viols and Hautboys Seaman, Mar. 139 

Voice Questions Douty, Each Issue 

Voice, Some Problems of the 

Deep Berglund, Sept. 495 

Voice, Training the Young .... Sayre, Jan. 16 

What’s the Name Please Grant, Mar. 165 

Wind Ensembles, Music for Goldman, July 379 
Wit and Humor of Musicians 

Pt. Ill Nettl, Jan. 6 

Woman Violinist Evelyn, Sept. 485 

Woodwind Playing, Mental and Physical 

Images in Howland, Apr. 179 

World of Music Each Issue 

You Don t ‘Decide” to be a 

Violinist Thomas, July 375 

Young People in Music Sargent, Dec. 687 

Young Singers a Break, Give. .Gamber, May 255 
Young Singer, Requisites for Merrill, June 315 




Liszt. Theme from “ Lea Preludes ” 

(Levine) t... 

Locke. Spring Idyl M J JjBjJ 

Mallard. March of the Shepherds y 


Marryott. Reminiscence 

Martin. Souvenir D’ Amour 

Mendelssohn 8 

Mnes f 

Mozart. Fantasia in D minor (Lebert) J,,i v to* 
Nordman. Periwigs and Ruffles . . An! 

(A Frolic in May . .W £av 

From. Crinoline Days j un y . 

Old Spinning Wheel Ren- 

| Silver' Bells , pt ’ 5 U 


[Wayside Bells ..i*.; £ 

O’Donnell. Dance of the Leprechauns. . Oct ' £70 
Ouseley. Easter Flowers (Richter) Anv Ooo 

Overholt. Shirley ? 0 P n r ’ , 

Payner. Colonial Tea Party ’ j a ' 

Ramsey. Welcome Snowdrop ! ’ m_ v ’ -1“ 

Renaldo. Enticement '* Mar* lko 

[Away in the Manger (arr.).".' Dec* 70s 
Richter School is Out '...Mar. i 6 ° 2 8 

Risher. Merry Elves Dec* i? 2 

(Snake Charmer Feb* ln ? 

Scher “ • Oct 58? 

[’Way Down South * Aug 454 

Schumann. Whims Sent* ine 

I Bobolink Sings a Song May 282 

Stairs j Sleeping Waters Anr 9 (n 

( The Organ Grinder j„ n ‘ » 1 

Steiner. Mozart at the Camptown Races Sent 514 

Stevens. In Sash and Sombrero Amr" 

Strauss. Vienna Life (King) " j u „' 

Taylor. The Chase ........... j a "° 3 ”“ 

(At the Fair . . . W s 0 pt. 522 

Thomas Ifnoht Sunny Days Aug. 462 

\Little Bobolink Oct 682 

Tibbitts YroTw R 'l bbl ‘* ■ ■ ■■■: •* July 402 

\Ojd Trunk m the Attic Oct 684 

Tillery. Valse Vicnnoisc Sept 612 

Travis. Dance of the Paper Dolls Dec 710 

Wagness. At the Barn Dance Aug 464 

Ward. America, The Beautiful J u ] y 395 

Woof J Birds in the Meadow July sno 


( Golden Sunset 

TTeepmg WiUow June 334 


Air from 

. 392 
Sept. 610 

Suite No. 3 in D 





Wilson. The Shepherd Boy July 394 

Wright { M n J our, ‘ e u Aug. 

( Swaying Dancer * ” Mar. 



Bach j ( Levine ) Feb 

Barton. Song of the Mill Mar. 

Beethoven /Andante Favori in F Feb." 

„ „ [tcondino rw 

BeUstedt. Cadet Capers (Carleton) Aug. 463 

Bentley ••••. Nov. 631 

(Af,crJfc nd i na J wer Mar. 16 3 

I Ajtemoon In Vienna Oct 570 

Brown \ Hopping Alona - 570 







Anthony. Rippling Waters 

Jan. 36 

Crammond \ Bloeaomttme Aug. 456 

TV44 u [Commencement Day March June 337 

Dittenhaven. Gay Dancers Sept 620 

English. / Saw Three Ships (Richter) Dec. 706 
Handd. Hallelujah Chorus (Bnmpton) Dec. 706 

Ketterer. The Little Lead Soldiers Feb. 100 

Kohlmann. In The Cross of Christ 1 


Mozart Duet (Bampton) ’ Feb* 100 

Peery. Two Guitars (arr.) Nov. 634 

Strickland. Little Indian Chief July 400 

Terry \Z t f rli g ht Apr. 220 

v h * v ? r ' t e Story Nov. 636 

Von Weber. Softly Now The Light of 


Hopping Along * T an ’ 

p . 1 On The Village Green Sept 523 

Browning. Reminiscence tSt oc« 

Burton * g-g 

Carson May 
Chasms. Prelude, In B minor . 

Mazurka Op. 7 No. l ‘ ' ‘ 

| Melody from Polonaise Op. 53 

Feb. 94 
Apr. 212 

May 282 
Aug. 448 




Chopin \ M < - F , riestly ) 

Nocturne Op. 15 No. 3 . 

Prelude in F-Sharp minor 

Clement! \ f?o°m L^Op.' se ^ 628 

Cooke {§2?? °f North 

l Whippoorwill 

De Leone. Carmencita . 

Duncan. Revolt in Rhythm .* .’ .' 



Sept. 508 
Dec. 690 
Apr. 210 
Apr. 208 

JJcau . . . 

fPt. i i 
]pt. n 
• [pt. in : 

Engelmann. Melody of Lave (Carleton) Sen 522 Matthews 
At The Firemnn’o n — 


Op. 12 
Gebhard, Sept. 504 
C minor 

Gebhard, Jan. 24 
Berkley, Mar. 141 

Dec. 681 



Oct. 554 

o ii- .... v- - — Nov. 614 

belling Music to the Public. .Comfort, Mar. 133 
[Controlling Tempo and 

I Dynamics Feb. 73 

1 Practical Side of Piano 
TT l Haying Sept. 489 

V" 4 ® tha Lor £” Klein, Dec. 682 

Singer Needs For a Career in 

ru’V’a •••*. Wilson, Dec. 688 

Ringing, Chest Support m Armstrong, Mar. 135 

binging. Secret of Lynch Feb. 69 

Singing Voice, Intelligent Care Weede, Dec 679 

lSng Ch Th a a n t d N S a n nfid ng Foir W ° Ct ’ 65S 

StST 3 and * Xmati* V*ioiins ^utft ^ 308 
WV> re ^ an Those of Stradivarius, 

Stars Tnd'siripesFire^r::.^"- ft* ^ 

String Quartet? Ever Play in Greener, July* 364 

TAPPER vf °v E £ each r? r ” Mehr - Oct. 557 
1APPER. Yes You Can Compose!... Nov. 604 
. Teach Piano in a Small Town 

tILI-t,’-”!, Guhl, Jan. 13 

Teaching, Basic Purpose of 

Technique* 'for 'the* Amkteur* " Feb ’ 67 

Theory B 0 h ? ’d 1 ^M Vel?Pin ® Aug. 444 
Theory, Knf T^Adventufe^™ 0 ”' J " ly 383 
mi! a *£r* « Parkinson , June 304 

T vn Hai From the Red River 

rrvY aa ®y • • • • ••••••• Watkins, July 366 

Things You 11 Soon Forget Caseu A or 

ESSSttfS- ‘SttiS 


| if g 

Dancing Debutante * * " Feb 99 

Moonlight on the Mountain 

. Top 

F„ * , [Spring in Old Vimna *.*.*.* .*.*.* mS 26R 
rfnk ROmant{ ™ Fei 2 tl 

Fr ^{wTj S MiZ^S Feii ^' : - lr : M 

Gluck. Gavotte ( Brahms ) £ ov ’ 642 

Godard. Au Matin ' “ay 2fia 

Green wald. Chimes at Chrdim as ",\\\\ 

Gretchaninoff Jan; 

(Heart’s Desire V,U “ Se °' se May 

GrCy \ye B sZ d y e °ir the June 333 

Grieg. Morning Mood .. t n * 


Ma°y* 272 

Hnpkins J Enchantment 

Hopkms F ant Garie - Jan 25 

[June Blossoms ^ 453 








Ivanovich Waves of the Danube 


Kern. Valse Piquante 

fA Fairy Tale 
•er { Fair. ~ ’ 


Ketterer 1 Fairy Swing Song 

[The Swan .... 

[ Lady in Organdy 

■j Polka Parisienne 

Klein. Breath //leather* f 

Kohlmann ^ 

.[Jerusalem the Golden".'.'.'. Nov! 632 


June 325 

Nov. 643 
July 388 
Dec. 708 
Apr. 223 
May 274 
Mar. 154 
Oct. 575 


Lane - WSSf. ::.*: &° b v * 6 | 0 2 

ChrlStmaS Trowbridge, Dec. 678 L *ht ft&ZtZXSF?.. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ; ^ £ 


{ Jesus, Priceless Treasure (Kraft) Oct. 

r 0 ” at J,™ < Kraf4) •••• July 

The Old Year Now Has Passed 

Away Jan. 41 

Higgle. Song of The Good Shepherd Mar. 158 

Kern. Easter Triumph Apr. 216 

Kohlmann. My Jesus l Love Thee Aug. 460 

Mallard. Evening Shadows May 278 

7t Came Upon The Midnight 

, Clear De*. 704 

Jesus Calls Us, O'er The 

„ ' Tumult j une 340 

Mozart. March of the Priests (Dav)... Feb. 98 
Seeboeck. Minuet a I’Antico (Brinkler) Nov. 638 
Stable. Prayer \ Sept 617 


Bliss. Dawn Dance 38 

Destouches. Sarabande Mar. 155 

Dittersdorf. German Dance, In E July 395 

Handel /Andante from Sonata 1 Aug. 458 

[Largo from Sonata III Dec. 699 

Heckman. Poeme Oct. 580 

Hoplnns. Cloud Castles Apr. 215 

S ra , nz - F«fee Piquante Sept. 518 

Iff. Nocturnette Feb. 99 

itan. Cavatina Mav 279 

A Visit to Grandpa’s'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. June 341 
Woodbridge. Dance of the Gnomes Nov. 641 


Grf ft Peace Have They Apr. 218 

Cooke. Twdight Jan . 39 

Duniap. Thoughts of Spring Mar. 156 

Grey. Frankness j u l y 3 99 

Hager. God Cares Aug. 459 

Newman Not Walk Alone Oct. 579 

p l Out In The Fields With God May 275 

Peace. Pickaninny Sep t. 516 

Spross. Thy Will Be Done June 338 

Vaneuf. Star Divine Dec. 702 

Watts. Retrospect Nov. 640 

Aoeckler. When I Kneel Down to Pray Feb. 96 


Avery. Second Movement from Concer- 
to on Familiar Tunes (2 Pianos, 4 

RvS? nds> May 276 

Kohlmann. Christmas Fantasy (Ex- 
cerpt) (2 Pianos. 4 Hands) Dec. 700 



THE snow QUfffl 

A Story Cycle of Piano Pieces for Young Players 
Music by P. Tchaikovsky 

Story from Hans Christian Andersen 

Adaptation by Louise Robyn 

This work has a practical element in that it is an artis- 
tic application of the TWELVE FUNDAMENTAL 
CHORD PRINCIPLES introduced in Miss Robyn’s 
Chord Grafters ( Technic Tales , Book III). 

Story headings include Once Upon a Time, The Ugly 
Hobgoblins , Gerta and Kay, The Snow Queen , The Bad 
Boy, Gerta Meets the Good W itch. 

Price, 75 cents 

Made Easy to Play or Sing By Mary Bacon Mason 

Thirty-four carols and hymns, all with text, arranged 
primarily for children or adults who, for various reasons, 
prefer music which is easily read. Important features of 
the book are: large-size notes, complete fingering, no 
intervals over a seventh, and the allowance of space for 
pasting in Christmas cards. 

Carols and hymns include: Lo, How a Rose (Prae- 
torius), Calm on the Listening Ear of Night (Gould), 
Here a Torch, Jeannette , Isabella (Old French). 

Price, 75 cents 


High Voice Medium Voice 


At Eve I Heard a Flute Lily Strickland 

Blue Are Her Eyes Wintter Watts 

Cradle Song ".Johannes Brahms 

Dedication Robert Franz 

Dreams Richard Wagner 

Floods of Spring Serge Rachmaninoff 

If God Left Only You John H. Densmore 

I Heard a Cry William Arms Fisher 

I Love Thee Edvard Grieg 

Lady Moon Clara Edwards 

The Little Road to Kerry . Charles Wakefield Cadman 
The Time for Making Songs Has Come 

James H. Rogers 
Price, $1.00 Each Volume 

First-Year Songs for Study and Recreation 
Compiled by W. J. Baltzell and W. A. F. 

Medium Voice 


All Through the Night Welsh Air 

Because of You Lily Strickland 

Canst Thou Believe? Giuseppe Giordani 

Cease, Oh Cease Alessandro Scarlatti 

Cradle Song Johannes Brahms 

Daddy Arthur H. Behrend 

The Heart of Her Charles Wakefield Cadman 

In the Time of Roses Luise Reichardt 

The Little Red Lark Irish Air 

The Little Sandman Johannes Brahms 

Loch Lomond Scottish Air 

Madrigal Cecil Chaminade 

Price, $1.00 


Edited by Wilman Wilmans 
High Voice Low Voice 


Pest Alice P Weslev 

By the Waters of Babylon Charles T. Howell 

Calvary .... Rodney 

Consider and Hear Me Alfred Wooler 

rossing the Bar Eugene Cowles 

Day Is Ended, The J C. Bartlett 

Cod Is a Spirit Charles P. Scott 

Hvitt nn *r* Jules Granier 

To n i° *Be Last Supper Victoria Demarest 

I ir^ Frederick Stevenson 

p / , L^P Mine Eyes Margery Watkins 

s • J 11 ? Beardsley Van de Water 

Price, $1.25 Each Volu me 


At Dawning (/ Love You ) Charles Wakefield Cadman 

Cathedral at Twilight, The Bernard Wagness 

Coming of Spring, The Sarah Ball Brouwers 

Dream, A J. C. Bartlett 

Enchanted Cardens Clarence Kohlmann 

Forgotten Eugene Cowles 

Jeunesse Charles Fonteyn Manney 

Juggler, The Carl Wilhelm Kern 

Pines, The H. Alexander Matthews 

Russian Dance H. Engelmann 

Price, $1.00 


Over 200 Pages of Superb 'Music 

Aragonaise (From “Ballet du Cid”) Jules Massenet 

Capriccio, in A Minor (Peons) .Anton S. Arensky 

Capriccio .Johannes Brahms 

Erotik (Poeme Erotique) Edvard Grieg 

Evening Song (Abendlied) Robert Schumann 

For Elise (Fur Elise) Ludwig van Beethoven 

Gigue (Danse Antique) Benjamin Godard 

Gipsy Rondo (Ungarisches Rondo) .Franz Joseph Haydn 

Kamennoi-Ostrow Anton Rubinstein 

Largo (From “Xerxes”) George Frideric Handel 

Price, $1.00 

52 Pieces for the Piano 
Compiled by John Carroll Randolph 

Allegretto from the Seventh Symphony 

Ludwig van Beethoven 

Andante Cantabile Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky 

But the Lord Is Mindful of His Own. .Felix Mendelssohn 
Chorale from Sleepers, Wake! . . .Johann Sebastian Bach 

Elegie (Melody, in E minor) Jules Massenet 

Evening Song (Abendlied) Robert Schumann 

Evening Prayer (Frqm Hansel and Gretel) 

Engelbert Humperdinck 

Largo (From Xerxes) George Frideric Handel 

O Thou Sublime, Sweet Evening Star. . .Richard Wagner 

Palm Branches (Leo Rameaux) Jean-Baptiste Faure 

Price, $1.00 

With Stories of the Carols 

For Mixed Voices and Unison Singing 
Edited by Norwood Hinkle 

Forty-seven Carols, with brief notes concerning their 
origin. Included in the collection are The Angels and 
the Shepherds (French), As I Was Watching O’er My 
Sheep (German), At Solemn Midnight Came a Call 
(French), Boar’s Head Carol (English), 

Price, 50 cents 


For Playing or Singing Arranged by Norwood Hinkle 

Included in this collection are The Christmas Tree (Ger- 
man), Fum, Fum, Fum! (Catalan), Here We Come 
A-Wassailing (English), Infant Holy, Infant Lowly 
(Polish), Infant So Gentle (French), What Child Is 
This? (English). 

Price, 50 cents 


Masters of the Symphony by Percy Goetschius, Mus. 
Doc. A survey of the symphony and its development. 

Cloth-bound, Price, $2.00 
Epochs in Musical Progress by Clarence G. Hamil- 
ton. A broad outline of the growth of music. 

Cloth-bound, Price, $1.50 
From Song to Symphony by Daniel Gregory Mason. 
A manual of music appreciation. 

Cloth-bound, Price, $1.50 
Why We Love Music by Carl E. Seashore. 

An interesting psychological study of music. 

Cloth-bound, Price, $1.50 
Talks About Beethoven Symphonies by Theodore 
Thomas and Frederick Stock. (Nontechnical.) 

Cloth-bound, Price, $2.50 
Art Song in America by William Treat Upton. 

Song composition and its development. 

Cloth-bound, Price, $3.00 
The Ambitious Listener by Leo R. Lewis. 

Bright, colloquial, humorous style. 

Paper Cover, Price, 60c 
Music Appreciation by Clarence G. Hamilton. 

Based upon methods of literary criticism. 

Cloth-bound, Price, $2.50 


In Two Sizes 

Large (Cloth-Bound), $1.75 
Pocket Edition (Condensed), 35 cents 


1712 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia I, Pa. 

Wurlitzer piano illustrated. Model 72 5 . In mahogany finish. 

a piano. ..a home. ..and Christmas 

Christmas time or any time, the fundamentals of a true home are roof 
to cover, food to eat, clothing to wear and loving-kindness among 
the people of that home. 

On that base you build as much beauty, happiness and culture as you 
have the urge or the means to provide. 

How important you consider a piano is perhaps in direct ratio to 
how important you consider culture, happiness and beauty. And, if 
there are children, how important you consider the offering to them 
of the soul-filling heritage of music. The “Fun-for-Life” of music. 

In this day and age, a fine piano is within the means of almost any 

Isn’t this your Christmas for a Wurlitzer? 

Wurlitzer pianos present a beautiful choice of ways to say 
“Merry Christmas” to the entire family. The new Wurlitzer models are con- 
structed of the choicest woods and provide many scientific advances for 
fuller, more resonant tonal qualities. Among their new cabinet designs you 
will find the style to fit either modern or traditional settings. 

For the name of your nearest Wurlitzer piano dealer, write: